Viral infection (adenovirus, Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV), influenza, parainfluenza, rhinoviruses) may cause up to 42% of acute LRTI during the winter months in institutionalized elderly subjects, RSV being the most common viral pathogen in this setting (Falsey et al., 1992; Falsey et al., 1995). In community-acquired LRTI, a history of a familial flu-like illness, better functionality, and a lower leucocyte count (<1010/L) are predictive of viral infection (Flamaing et al., 2003). Among patients admitted to a hospital for CAP or NHAP, viruses are the causative agents in 2 to 32% of patients admitted, influenza, RSV, and parainfluenza being the most commonly implicated (Falsey et al., 1995; Janssens et al., 1996; El-Solh et al., 2001; Fernandez-Sabe et al., 2003;
Zalacain et al., 2003). In a recent prospective study of healthy elderly subjects, followed for up to two winter seasons, clinical RSV infection occurred in 3 to 7% of healthy elderly and 4 to 10% of high-risk elderly subjects. Although symptoms of RSV and Influenza A were similar, RSV led to less physician and emergency room visits than Influenza A and was associated with a lower use of antibiotics (Falsey et al., 2005). Influenza A is reported in 1.5 to 26% of admissions for CAP or LRTI (Fernandez-Sabe et al., 2003; Flamaing et al., 2003; Saldias Penafiel et al., 2003; Zalacain et al., 2003; Torres et al., 2004). Para-influenza and RSV were identified respectively in 1 to 1.3% and 0.6 to 3.6% of admissions (Fernandez-Sabe et al., 2003; Flamaing et al., 2003; Zalacain et al., 2003).
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...