Table 561

Select biological alterations in tissues with slow turnover rate. (Adapted from Mooradian, A.D. (1988). J. Am Geriatr. Soc. 36, 831-839, with permission from the American Geriatrics Society and Blackwell Publishing.). NC: No change; #: Decrease; ": Increase.

Parameters Measured

Aging Diabetes Mellitus

I. Central Nervous System

Cognitive function # # Blood-brain barrier:

Transport of glucose, choline # #

Transport of neutral amino acids NC NC

Na/K-ATP ase or Mg-ATP ase NC NC

Endothelial barrier antigen # #

Conjugated dienes " "

Lipid composition NC NC

Hormone stimulated adenylate # #

cyclase activity Neurochemical changes

Key metabolic enzymes: tyrosine # # Hydroxylase, DOPA decarboxylase, malate dehydrogenase.

Zona occludens 1 NC NC

Synaptosomal membranes lipids NC NC

Malondialdehyde modified proteins " "

Micrococcal nuclease digestion # #

II. Peripheral Nervous System

Conduction velocity # #

Myelin crosslinks " "

III. Heart Muscle

Beta adrenergic receptors #

Hormone-stimulated adenylate Cyclase

IV. Skeletal Muscle

Protein synthesis

Single fiber atrophy

Key metabolic enzymes: Mg-ATP ase,

Lactate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, citrate

Synthase, a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

V. Croos Links in:

1. Collagen of skin, dura, tendons, arteries

2. Lens crystalline

VII. Capillary Basement Membrane

Thickness IX. Large Arteries Sclerosis

Prostacyclin production

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