Table 482

The range of potential levels of complexity of simulations of mitochondrial DNA in aging

Levels of simulation Base pairs

Mitochondrial genes MtDNA molecules Nucleoids Mitochondrion Cell level

Tissue or organ level Organism level Pedigree (maternal relatives) Mitochondrial haplogroups

We have used almost all these levels in various simulations that we have created, but you can expect to cover no more than two or at most three levels of scale in any one simulation.

For aging simulations we have focused on the smaller scales given in Table 48.2, generally around the cellular level. However, this still leaves a wide range of scales to consider, too wide a range for a single simulation design to handle efficiently. We have dealt with this multiple-scale problem by developing two types of simulation. The mtDNA Molecule Level simulation can deal with the scales from the mtDNA molecule level to the cellular level. The Cell Level simulation deals with the scales from the cellular level only to the small tissue level. The practical upper limit (with the current computers) on the Cell Level simulation is a few tens of millions of simulated cells over a time span of 100 years. Each of these two simulations has its strengths and its limitations. In the following we describe the computational methods for each simulation model separately, and then we compare the computer requirements of each model.

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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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