System Dysfunction

Dysfunction of key organ systems might explain the phenomenon of frailty. This would include musculo-skeletal abnormalities (e.g., sarcopenia) (Marcell 2003; Doherty 2003; Vanltallie 2003), endocrine deficiency states (e.g., gonadal hormones, DHEA, growth hormone/ IGF-1) (Morley et al., 2005), or immune dysfunction (e.g., high levels of inflammatory markers like TNF-a and IL-6) (Cohen 2000). It is not felt, though, that frailty arises from a single system problem (i.e., frailty ^ sarcopenia). There is widespread agreement that a core feature of frailty is the dysfunction of multiple physiologic systems. Different investigators have proposed various combinations of the following abnormalities as underlying frailty: diminished aerobic capacity; abnormalities in the neurological system (e.g., cognition, balance, and gait); musculoskeletal problems; precarious or deficient nutritional states; endocrine-metabolic dysfunction; stimulation of the immune system; and cardiovascular concerns (Buchner et al., 1992; Lipsitz et al., 1992); Lipsitz, 2002; Bortz, 2002; Campbell et al., 1997). Endocrine-immune dysregulation is a particularly favored partnering (Walston, 2004; Joseph et al., 2005; Ferrucci et al., 2003). At the present time there are no widely accepted animal models for frailty.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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