Dogs develop a variety of age-dependent cognitive deficits that parallel declines observed in normal and pathological aging in humans. Our studies revealed a large amount of variability in cognitive aging in the dog. Like humans, cognitive aging in the Beagle dog is complex and nonlinear, and striking individual differences are common. In both humans and dogs, some individuals show little decline (successful agers), some show mild decline, and others of the same age develop severe cognitive impairments. The earliest signs of cognitive decline observed in the dog appear to include executive functions.
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