Retinoschisis

Two degenerative forms of retinoschisis have been described; they are both most frequently seen in the inferotemporal quadrant and derive from a preexisting form of peripheral cystoid degeneration. Typical peripheral cystoid degeneration can evolve into typical degenerative retinoschisis, whereas both the typical and reticular forms of peripheral cystoid degeneration can transform into reticular degenerative retinoschisis. Typical degenerative retinoschisis causes a smooth raising of the retina in 1% of the adult population (bilateral in 33% of cases). Typical peripheral cystoid degeneration surrounds the lesions. The retina is divided along the outer plexiform layer, and consequently the inner layer comprises the ILM, the nervous fiber layer, the retinal vessels, the ganglion cells, the inner plexiform layer, and the inner nuclear layer; normally only the ILM, the nervous fiber layer, and part of the inner nuclear layer are visible. The outer layer is thicker, with cavities and is made up of the external nuclear layer and the photo-receptors (Foos, 1970). Reticular degenerative retinoschisis develops from the concurrent presence of typical and reticular cystoid degeneration of the peripheral retina. It is characterized by oval or round areas of detached retina in which a lump is in the very thin inner layer, and is observed in 1.6% of the adult population (in bilateral form in 15% of cases). Normally, typical peripheral cystoid degeneration is localized anterior to the reticular degenerative retinoschisis, whereas the reticular form is adjacent.

The detachment occurs in the nervous fiber layer; the inner portion contains only the ILM, some retinal vessels, and a variable portion of the nervous fiber layer. The outer portion contains the remaining relatively complete retinal layers. Sometimes typical and reticular retinoschisis are seen at the same time. It is not always easy to differentiate between the two forms on a clinical basis, unless there are lumpy aspects. The presence ofholes in the outer margin or posterior extension are characteristics more common of the reticular form than the typical form.

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Blood Pressure Health

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