Recommended Resources

Eichenbaum, H., Dudchenko, P., Wood, E., Shapiro, M., and Tanila, H. (1999). The hippocampus, memory, and place cells: is it spatial memory or a memory space? Neuron 23, 209-226.

This article presents an overview of how place cells could contribute to the episodic memory theory of hippo-campal function.

Gallagher, M., and Rapp, P.R. (1997). The use of animal models to study the effects of aging on cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 48, 339-370.

This excellent review explores the functions of the medial temporal lobe and the frontal lobes and then examines how each system is affected by aging in humans and in animals.

Hargreaves, E.L. Page O' Neuroplasticity. http://

This webpage provides a comprehensive introduction to many aspects of hippocampal neuroplasticity. This is an excellent introduction to place cell technique, complete with descriptive photos, references, and links to scientists who do place cell research.

Hedden, T., and Gabrieli, J.D. (2004). Insights into the ageing mind: A view from cognitive neuroscience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 87-96.

This review presents an elegant overview of normal human aging and relates it to findings from animal research.

O'Keefe, J., and Nadel, L. (1978). The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Clarendon, Oxford.

This influential book drew the connection between spatial navigation and the hippocampus, arguing that hippocampal place cells represent elements of the rat's cognitive map. It has spawned a great deal of research into the spatial nature of the hippocampus. Furthermore, the book distinguished between two systems of navigation learning, one based on routes and guidances and another based on the cognitive map of spatial information.

Rosenzweig, E.S., and Barnes, C.A. (2003). Impact of aging on hippocampal function: Plasticity, network dynamics, and cognition. Prog. Neurobiol. 69, 143-179.

This article comprehensively reviews age-related changes to the hippocampus from behavioral, neurobio-logical, and place cell perspectives. This provides an outstanding review of age-related changes to synaptic plasticity.

Wilson, I.A. (2005). Hippocampal place cells as a window into cognitive aging. Ph.D. thesis, University of Kuopio, Finland.

This dissertation ties together spatial memory impairments, neurobiological deteriorations in the hippocampus, and weakened processing by hippocampal place cells associated with normal aging.

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