Healthcare providers as well as family members have long noticed and commented on a subset of older adults who appeared to be highly vulnerable to falls, fractures, illnesses, loss of independence, and ultimately mortality (Fried et al, 1998). Although these same healthcare providers and family members often recognize frailty when they observed it, there has been very little consistency in the definition of frailty, and hence few validated clinical models of frailty. This is in part because of the heterogeneity that is inherent in many of the processes that may underlie frailty, including aging processes, the development of chronic diseases, social settings, psychological conditions, and genetic predisposition. In addition, it remains unclear if frailty is in and of itself a biologically distinct entity that could be called a clinical syndrome, or whether it simply represents a cluster of partially related signs and symptoms that are generated by aging or disease related processes (Walston et al., 2005). Over the past several years, many of the following conceptual frameworks and definitions of frailty have been operationalized and validity tested using healthcare outcomes (Rockwood, 2005). However, there have been few efforts to compare these models with each other for the poor health outcomes that are the hallmark of this most vulnerable subset of older adults.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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