Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathways have been implicated in aging of several experimental organisms (Pardee et al., 2004). This pathway is critical to coordinating the influx of calories with the metabolic rate. Down-regulation of this pathway through caloric restriction is associated with increased life span in mice, worms, flies, and yeast (Barbieri et al., 2003). One of the key transcription factors implicated in aging, namely, FOXO, is regulated by insulin and IGF-1. The FOXO homolog in worms, DAF-16, has a central role in imparting longevity of worms with mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway genes, such as daf-2 and age-1 (Kenyon et al., 1993). Over-expression of dFOXO in worms and DAF-16 in flies extends life span through interactions with a host of other nuclear receptors, particularly the PPARs (Giannakou et al., 2004; Henderson and Johnson, 2003). These receptors are up-regulated during caloric restriction, and overexpression of PPAR S in transgenic mice is associated with
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.