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Influenza

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Leishmania spp.

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Listeria monocytogenes

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Mycobacterium spp.

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Plasmodium bergheia

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Pseudomonas aeruginosab

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No Information

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Salmonella

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"Relative susceptibility depends on outcome measured (e.g., parasitemia vs. cerebral symptoms). bLung infection susceptibility is shown; differences exist with regard to corneal and other sites of infection.

"Relative susceptibility depends on outcome measured (e.g., parasitemia vs. cerebral symptoms). bLung infection susceptibility is shown; differences exist with regard to corneal and other sites of infection.

be considered middle-aged or mature; old C57BL/6 mice are usually in the 22- to 24-month range. The condition in which mice are housed also affects life span. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions result in decreased life span in some (e.g., BALB/cBy), but increased life span in others (e.g., C57BL/6) (www. informatics.jax.org/external/festing/mouse/docs).

Strain-specific changes in immunity and life span may underlie much of the variability and contradictions in the literature. An excellent example of this is shown in Figure 53.1, demonstrating strain- and age-related changes of B. microttii parasitemia in murine models (Vannier et al., 2004).

In the cited study, age-related differences of susceptibility were attributed to strain specificity (i.e., DBA/2 mice were assessed to experience an age-related decline in susceptibility to babesiosis, whereas C57BL/6 and BALB/c were not), and there are clearly strain-related differences with young DBA/2 mice showing greater susceptibility than the other two strains. However, as evidenced by the lower panels in Figure 53.1, outcomes in 18-month-old mice show some age-related changes in strains other than DBA/2, particularly in BALB/c mice. It is possible that age-associated declines in immunity render old C57BL/6 mice more susceptible to babesiosis as well, but that 18 months is not old enough for that particular strain to demonstrate statistically significant changes. Thus, it is important to try to match the stage of human life we are attempting to replicate in an inbred strain of mouse. This concept is illustrated in Figure 53.2 (Turnbull et al., 2003).

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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