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Figure 21.3. Example for senescent tissue degeneration in Panorpa ultrastructure of (a) young flight muscle, (b) flight muscle deterioration, (c) malpighian tubule with lipofuscine like inclusions and degenerated mitochondria.

influence on aging and disease. Phormia has proven to be a suited experimental animal to study such chronobiolog-ical aspects. After keeping the flies in non-24-h light-dark cycles or subjecting them to a jet lag, a life-shortening

Figure 21.4. (a) Energy profile over the life span of male and female Phormia flies measured as CO2 production with an infrared analyzer. (b) Decline of maximum (flight) and minimum (walking) activity and constant basal metabolic rate (night values) over the life span of males. Data taken from (a).

effect could be detected (Saint Paul, 1978). Only few attempts have been made up to now to gain more insight into the mechanisms of circadian dyschronism and aging. Aging changes in glycolytic oscillations—a basic biochemical rhythm—were described for Phormia by Collatz and Horning (1990) and Horning and Collatz (1990).

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