The diagnosis of diabetes should be made on the basis of a fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or greater on at least two occasions (Standards, 2005; Halter, 1999). The diagnosis could also be made with an OGTT when the plasma glucose level is higher than 200 mg/mL (11.1 mmol/L) two hours post-challenge (Standards, 2005; Halter, 1999). These criteria have been chosen based on longitudinal studies demonstrating plasma glucose levels associated with an increased risk for retinopathy. Approximately 50% of the elderly population have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with normal fasting plasma glucose level. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is defined as a glucose level over 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L), but less than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Standards, 2005; Halter, 1999). This is an intermediate stage in the alteration of glucose metabolism and, as such, a strong predictor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The rate of conversion of IGT to diabetes was found to be between 3.6% for women and 8.7% for men per year (Yudkin et al., 1993). Although individuals with IGT do not develop the microvascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes, they are at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and are also at higher risk of mortality attributable to cancer (Saydah et al., 2003).
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.