Cystic Degeneration

The retina shows two types of cystic degeneration, typical and reticular. Typical cystic degeneration originates on the outer plexiform layer, and reticular originates in the nervous fiber layer. These changes are very common after 70 years of age. The typical peripheral cystoid degeneration (TPCD) (Blessig-Iwanoff cysts) is characterized by cysts of the outer plexiform layer containing hyaluronic acid that can also coagulate, producing a globular form with winding channels that branch irregularly. Complications are rare; the retinal holes do not produce detachment of the retina as the vitreous is normally complete over the lesion. The extension of the lesion beyond the equator is rare. The breakage of the walls of the cysts or gaps causes the formation of peripheral lamellar holes. The retina is not detached; there is not the operculum of real retinal holes. Rare, but possible, is the formation of real retinal holes, with operculum to which vitreous body filaments adhere following a filamentous degeneration of the vitreous body and unsticking from the ora serrata. This can lead to another peripheral alteration: degenerative retinoschisis. The second type of modification is retinal periphery cystoid degeneration, which is almost always continuous and located behind areas of typical peripheral cystiod degeneration, and usually is found in the inferotemporal quadrant. This has a reticular aspect that corresponds to the retinal vessels of the inner layers. A finely punctured inner surface corresponds to the attachment points of the tissue cushions to the inner layer. The cystic spaces are localized in the nervous fiber layer. This process occurs in 18% of adults, in bilateral form, in 41%. It can evolve into degenerative reticular retinoschisis (O'Malley and Allen, 1967).

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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