*MLS = maximum reliably documented life span. "C" denotes longevity record from captive representatives; "W" denotes record from mark-recapture records from wild populations. References: National Research Council, 1981; Murphy and King, 1990; Ku and Sohal, 1993; Nottebohm et al., 1994; Holmes, et al., 2001; Holmes and Austad 1995a; Austad, 1997; Ottinger, 2001; D. Nelson, pers. comm.; F. Nottebohm, pers. comm.
In addition, several teams of field ornithologists have published reports of aging-related declines in immunity in wild birds (for an earlier review, see Holmes and Austad, 2004).
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When over eighty years of age, the poet Bryant said that he had added more than ten years to his life by taking a simple exercise while dressing in the morning. Those who knew Bryant and the facts of his life never doubted the truth of this statement.