Aging Of The Microglia

The retinal microglia originate from the hematopoietic cells and enter the retina from the retinal margin and the optic disk, through the blood vessels of the cilliary bodies and iris, and of the retina, respectively. The microglial precursors that are found on the retina before vascular-ization are positive to some specific immuno-stainings and express the CD45 marker, but are not positive for specific markers of the macrophages. A second category of microglial precursors, which express typical macrophage markers, migrate into the retina together with vascular precursors. These are localized around the blood vessels in the adult retina and are similar to macrophages or mononuclear phagocytes. The microglial cells are found in the outer plexiform layer, the external nuclear layer, the internal plexiform layer, the gangliar layer, and the nervous fiber layer of the retina in humans. The retinal macrophages are involved in the defense against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infection, in immunoregulation, in tissue repair, in the catabolism of neurotransmitters and hormones, and in the lipid turnover of nervous tissue. The microglia play an important role in the defense against microorganisms, in immune regulation, and in tissue repair. The occurrence of neurodegenerative phenomena, but also normal aging, cause the conversion of the microglia from resting to reactive. Reactive microglia have the responsibility of phagocyting the debris and facilitate the regenerative processes. The morphology and localization of the microglia are not the same for all our ages. It has been seen that in newborn mice, the microglia cells are round and ameboid with thick, squat pseudo-polipoid protrusions distributed in the ganglion and nervous fiber layers, whereas their morphology shows some age-related changes.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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