Aged Nonhuman Primates

Nonhuman primates, for example, different monkey strains, develop age-related behavioral and brain alterations similar to those found in humans. Monkeys (e.g., Macaca mulatta) have an estimated lifespan of more than 35 years and are the best available model to study AD pathology. Behavioral testing has shown that memory and cognition decline in the second decade of the monkey life and are particularly evident in the mid- to late twenties. In old monkeys, dystrophic neurites, amyloid deposition, and alterations of specific neurotransmitter systems are similar, although less severe, than those reported in the old human brain and AD patients. Namely, slightly enlarged neurites and pre-amyloid deposits constitute the earliest lesions found in the parenchyma of the cortex of the animals around 20 years of age. In addition to the classical alterations found in the human brain (i.e., neurites containing membranous elements, degenerating mitochondria, lysosomes, APP, phosphorylated neurofilaments) in the neuronal peri-karya, axons, and neurites within SP containing ^A of old monkeys, an APP-like immunoreactivity has been found. This implies that neurons may serve as a source of some ^A deposits. As in humans, in the old monkey brain nonneuronal cells may participate in the formation of ยก3A as shown by the proximity of this peptide to reactive astrocytes, microglia, and vascular cells. On the basis of these features, nonhuman primates appear to represent a reliable animal model of aging to investigate the many alterations occurring in the old human brain.

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Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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