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the facility against this risk. One way is by only allowing studies including such materials in negative pressure isolators. Another way is by only allowing those materials that derive directly from facilities in which the microbiological status is clearly defined as described above. This reduces the risk to a level comparable to introducing animals from that facility. A third way is to test all biological materials before allowing them into the animal facility.

As viruses impose the highest risk, it is not possible to test biological materials by simple cultivation. Today, PCR253 is applicable for most laboratory animal viruses, and therefore, this method is the fastest, cheapest, and from an ethical point of view, most desirable method. However, if PCR is not available for everyone of those agents to be searched, for it may be necessary to test the materials by the mouse antibody production (MAP) test.254 In this test, germ-free rodents of the appropriate species are exposed to the material in an isolator. To increase the risk of infection, the material is given by the intranasal as well as the intraperitoneal route. Four days later, serum is sampled for an enzymatic test for lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus. Twenty-eight days later, the animals are exsanguinated, and serological assays are made for all agents searched for.

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