IAT was created in the U.K. to attain proper recognition of the essential contributions to science of those employed to care for laboratory animals.
To advance and promote excellence in the technology and practice of laboratory animal care and welfare. In education, IAT makes provision for animal technicians, technologists, and others professionally engaged in the field of animal science to receive appropriate training and qualifications, thus ensuring that they may contribute to advancing standards of laboratory animal welfare.
IAT started in the U.K., but now welcomes applications from elsewhere. IAT welcomes application for membership from animal technicians, technologists, animal scientists, veterinarians, and others engaged in the field of animal technology and its supporting industries. Applicants must be proposed by an existing member of the institute and be employed in the field of animal technology, or one of the mentioned professions or supporting industries.
IAT holds an annual congress and develops a varied program of meetings throughout the year in conjunction with other scientific organizations. IAT is also involved, together with similar organizations inside Europe, in the European Federation of Animal Technologists (EFAT, [email protected]), and as such, participates actively in the European forums of discussion, i.e., Council of Europe.
IAT publishes Animal Technology that is circulated worldwide. A monthly bulletin is also published as a mechanism to keep members informed of the activities of the institute and its branches. IAT has also published educational aids, books, videos, etc.
Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine: JALAM
JALAM is an academic organization for laboratory animal medicine in Japan. Aims
The association promotes the advancement of research and education for laboratory animal medicine and the health of laboratory animals.
Members are registered veterinarians and specialists in laboratory animal medicine, in particular, scientists who are teaching laboratory animal medicine in veterinary schools.
JALAM holds a meeting once a year, and several education and training programs are held several times a year.
The JALAM Newsletter is published biannually in Japanese, but the contents in English are available on their Web site.
Japanese College of Laboratory Animal Medicine: JCLAM
One of the tasks of JALAM is to establish a college for the accreditation of diplomates in laboratory animal medicine.
The college is formed by charter diplomates selected to establish the college and the certification program. Development of the college can be followed through the JALAM Web site.
Animal Care and Welfare Organizations
Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC International)
AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and evaluation programs. More than 630 companies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, and other research institutions in 17 countries have achieved AAALAC accreditation, demonstrating their commitment to responsible animal care and use. Institutions volunteer to participate in AAALAC's programs, in addition to complying with the local and national laws that regulate animal research.
Institutions that use animals in research, teaching, or testing (or supply animals for these purposes) are eligible for AAALAC accreditation. Accredited institutions include universities, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, contract laboratories, breeders, hospitals, government agencies, and agricultural research programs.
AAALAC accreditation is a voluntary, confidential, peer-review accreditation program for institutions working with animals in science. Those that meet or exceed AAALAC standards are awarded accreditation.
Program Status Evaluation (PSE) is a voluntary, confidential, peer-review service that helps assess the quality of all aspects of an animal research program, including animal husbandry, veterinary care, institutional policies, and the facilities where animals are housed and used. The review helps institutions understand AAALAC standards and is often used to prepare institutions for accreditation.
AAALAC Connection is published three to four times annually for institutions working with animals in science. AAALAC E-Brief is published bimonthly for AAALAC-accredited institutions.
Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching: ANZCCART
The primary role of ANZCCART is of an advisory nature. The terms of reference of ANZCCART are to establish a national forum for effective communication between groups with concerns for the care and use of animals in research and teaching, and to provide information and advice on optimal standards for the care and use of such animals. Priority is given to the establishment and development of an associated information resource unit.
Membership of ANZCCART is based on the following criteria:
♦ Organizations involved in the administration or funding of substantial amounts of animal-based research or teaching
♦ Commonwealth and state bodies involved in the regulation of animal-based research and teaching
♦ Professional groups whose membership consists predominantly of persons involved in animal-based research or teaching
♦ Organizations with an established commitment to furthering the welfare of animals used in research and teaching
Through all its activities, ANZCCART seeks to promote alternatives to the use of animals in research and teaching, using the principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement. ANZCCART provides expert information to the scientific and lay community, as well as to government. It is represented in relevant state, territory, and national government committees. It liaises with an international network of similar organizations.
ANZCCART holds an annual conference, as well as workshops, and seminars. Publications
ANZCCART publishes a quarterly newsletter, ANZCCART News. ANZCCART also publishes the proceedings of its annual meeting and monographs relating to the use of animals in research and teaching.
Canadian Council on Animal Care: CCAC - Conseil canadien de protection des animaux: CCPA
Experimental animal use of vertebrates and cephalopods in Canada is subject to the requirements of the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), a national, peer-review organization founded in Ottawa in 1968. Every year in Canada, approximately two million animals are used for research, teaching, and testing purposes. The CCAC policy statement on the Ethics of Animal Investigation (October 1989) includes the following basic principles:
The use of animals in research, teaching, and testing is acceptable only if it promises to contribute to understanding of fundamental biological principles or to the development of knowledge that can reasonably be expected to benefit humans or animals.
Animals should be used only if the researcher's best efforts to find an alternative have failed. A continuing sharing of knowledge, review of the literature, and adherence to the Russell-Burch "3R" tenet of replacement, reduction, and refinement are also requisites. Those using animals should employ the most humane methods on the smallest number of appropriate animals required to obtain valid information.
The aims of the CCAC are to ensure that these basic principles are followed by:
♦ Publishing guidelines on the care and use of animals in science
♦ Assessing scientific institutions using animals
♦ Providing educational materials and activities to those who use and care for animals, as well as information to the public
The council comprises 22 member organizations, whose representatives include scientists, educators, veterinarians, and delegates from industry and the animal welfare movement. Scientific institutions funded by Canada's federal granting councils and other funding agencies must be full participants in the CCAC program: these include universities, hospitals, and colleges. Private-sector institutions and governmental units choose to be participants in the CCAC program. All institutions assessed by the CCAC and which achieve a CCAC status of compliance or conditional compliance receive a CCAC Certificate of GAP — Good Animal Practice.®
There are three main programs:
♦ Assessment Program: The CCAC conducts assessments of institutions using animals at least every three years. Assessments are based on CCAC guidelines and policies, and are conducted by panels composed of scientists, veterinarians, and community representatives.
♦ Guidelines Development Program: New CCAC guidelines are drafted, and older ones are reviewed, by groups of experts in the relevant field. They are then submitted to an expert peer review, followed by a wider review, in which they are provided to all CCAC constituents before finalized.
♦ Education and Training Program: The CCAC provides educational materials, particularly through its Web site, and organizes workshops across Canada to provide information on all aspects of animal care and use, and to address questions from its constituents and from the public.
The CCAC publishes guidelines and policies on the care and use of animals in science in both English and French. Most of the guidelines are contained in the two volumes of the CCAC Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals. These are gradually being updated in separate guidelines on various topics, and emerging issues, such as appropriate endpoints and transgenic animals, are also the subject of separate guidelines. CCAC guidelines are gradually being translated into Spanish; volume 1 of the CCAC Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals is available in Spanish, as are the guidelines on appropriate endpoints.
The CCAC also publishes and distributes widely a newsletter, Resource, available in English and French at no cost to any interested persons.
Finally, the CCAC regularly produces educational documents on various aspects of animal care and use, which are generally available on the CCAC Web site, as are all guidelines and policies.
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