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a It is assumed that the colony consists of 12 cages, and that these are to be replaced with a new generation of the same number of cages. Note: The breeding scheme ensures that each breeding male contributes one male, and each breeding female contributes one female to the next generation.

brother x sister mating, although in the long run, this does not matter, because any extra inbreeding that occurs as a result of mating closely-related individuals will be undone again in subsequent generations.

In summary, if the aim is to prevent genetic change, outbred stocks should be maintained as large randomly mated colonies with less than 1% inbreeding per generation, in which breeding individuals have been selected at random and without consideration of their phenotype, in order to avoid directional selection. Where it is not possible to maintain sufficiently large colonies, maximum avoidance of inbreeding should be used by ensuring that as far as possible, each breeding female contributes one female and each breeding male contributes one male to the next generation of breeding stock.

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