Elsewhere Around The World

Costa Rica

Costa Rica passed an Animal Welfare Law in 1994, the Ley de Bienestar de los Animales (Ley No. 7451). The implementing regulations were published as a presidential decree, Decreto No. 26668-MICIT. Briefly, the law requires an ethics committee to review the proposed animal use in both private and public institutions. The law also requires consideration of the value of the experiment vis-à-vis the promotion of human or animal health, selection of the most appropriate species and number of animals, minimization of pain, and humane euthanasia. Consideration must also be given to the use of analgesics and anesthetics, using current veterinary professional judgment and the provision of adequate veterinary care. Individuals using animals are expected to be qualified to do so. Alternatives to animal use are encouraged in the law. Experiments with animals must be registered with the Minister of Science and Technology.


The Animal Welfare Board of India was set up in accordance with Section 4 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (1960) (No. 59 of I960).32 The Ministry of Food and Agriculture constituted the Animal Welfare Board of India in 1962. Since 1998, oversight of the board is the purview of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. The functions of the board include advising the government on promulgating rules with a view to preventing unnecessary pain or suffering of captive animals and on potential amendments to the law. Chapter 4 of the Act addresses experimentation on animals. Included in the Act is the authority for the government to appoint a Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals. The Committee must ensure that animals are not subjected to unnecessary pain or suffering before, during, or after the performance of experiments on them. To achieve this, the Committee may, subsequent to notification in the Gazette of India, develop rules regarding the conduct of experiments. In general, the rules for animal experimentation pertain to appropriate qualifications of individuals conducting the experiment, minimization of animal pain by the use of anesthetics, euthanasia, consideration of alternatives to animal experimentation, ensuring that pre- and post-procedural care be provided to the animals, and ensuring that suitable records are maintained. The Committee can authorize inspection of the location of the experiment and can suspend animal work by an individual or an institution. The Indian National Science Academy is responsible for the development of guidelines for the operation of Institutional Animal Ethics Committees (IAEC). For example, protocols must be provided to the IAEC 30 days in advance of the committee meeting. The IAEC's principal responsibility is the review and authorization of proposed animal experimentation. Each IAEC includes a member of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals. Most experimentation is conducted on small laboratory animals (e.g., mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits); permission must be obtained from a subcommittee of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals to conduct research on larger animals.


Technical specifications for the production, care, and use of laboratory animals (Norma Oficial Mexicana para la Producción, Cuidado y Uso de los Animales de Laboratorio) are contained in the federal Mexican law, NOM-062-ZOO-1999. The law covers dogs, cats, pigs, and nonhuman primates. In addition, Mexico City enacted a law in 1981 for the prevention of cruelty to animals (Ley del Distristito Federal para la Prevención de la Crueldad a los Animales).


Russian regulations (No.1045-73), Sanitary Regulations for the Organization, Equipment, and Maintenance of Animal Facilities for Experimental Biology (Vivaria),33 describe the location and design of animal facilities, sanitation requirements of animal facilities, housing and husbandry requirements, acquisition and quarantine of animals, standards for personal hygiene, and standards for the humane treatment of animals. Included in the latter section is the requirement to minimize pain animals experience through the use of anesthetics and analgesics.

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