In Japan, the Prime Minister's Office is responsible for animal-protection laws and regulations. Although animal protection in Japan is based predominantly on ethical principles (derived in large part from their

Buddhist traditions), the Law for the Protection and Management of Animals (1973, translated into English in 1982)19 and the Standards Relating to the Care and Management of Experimental Animals (1980)20 are the framework for animal care and use for all universities and public and private research institutions.21 The law is designed to prevent cruelty to animals and foster "a feeling of love" and "respect for life." When an animal is used for education or research, methods should be employed that minimize pain, and euthanasia must be by a method that causes a minimum of pain. The standards apply to mammals and birds, and address transportation, quarantine, animal health and safety, minimization of pain during experimental procedures, occupational health, emergency planning, waste disposal, breeding, and protection of the environment. There is no law that requires a formal review and approval of proposed animal experimentation. However, animal experimentation committees, first recommended by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture for all universities, provide guidance to researchers. Creation of an animal-experimentation committee is not a legal requirement, although many institutions have voluntarily complied with the Ministry recommendations. The committee's composition includes personnel with veterinary, research, regulatory, and ethical expertise. The Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science has provided further guidance in its Guidelines on Animal Experimentation, which institutions voluntarily use as a reference document.


The Korean Animal Protection Law of 1991 permits the use of animals for teaching, research, "or other scientific study." The minimization of pain is inherent in Article 10, "Experiments with Animals." The law encourages the use of methods, whenever possible, that cause no pain, and the inspection of animals after an experimental procedure with timely euthanasia, should it be determined that the animals will suffer chronic pain or be "inviable." In addition, several institutions, such as the Korea Food and Drug Administration, have their own standards for animal use. The Korean Association of Laboratory Animal Science has published guidance on animal experimentation and provides a technician certification program. The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences published the Guide for Animal Experimentation in 2000, which is applied to animal research published in any Korean journal of medical science. Several institutions have determined to adhere to an international standard of quality animal care and use by becoming accredited by AAALAC International.

People's Republic of China

The Regulations for Administration of Laboratory Animals were approved by the State Council in 198822 and issued by the State Science and Technology Commission. The Ministry of Health subsequently published Implementing Detailed Rules of Medical Laboratory Animal Administration. In general, these regulations are designed to ensure high-quality animals for research. Standards are provided regarding construction of the animal housing areas; separation of animals by source, species, strain, experiment, and pathogen status; quality of food, water, and bedding provided to the animals; quarantine procedures; preventive medicine; and animal transportation. However, personnel qualifications and occupational health and safety are also addressed in the regulations. The Beijing Municipality has additional regulations regarding the administration of laboratory animals (1997).23 These regulations are specific to "artificially raised and bred animals with control of microbes and parasites carried by them and definite genetic background and clear sources that are used for scientific researches, teaching, production, examinations and other scientific experiments." The Beijing regulations require a license be obtained from the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission for the use of laboratory animals in breeding, research, or testing. The municipal regulations require personnel training, and technical staff must complete a technical competence assessment. Proper care, handling, and treatment of the animals are emphasized throughout the regulations.

Taiwan, ROC

In Taiwan, the Animal Protection Law (1998)24 has provisions that address animals used for commercial purposes (e.g., meat, milk, fur, etc.), science (teaching and research), and animals kept as pets. Chapter

II, Article 12 of the Animal Protection Law precludes the killing of animals, with certain exceptions — including killing for scientific purposes. Chapter III, Articles 15-18 specify the conditions for the "scientific utilization of animals." Included in this chapter is the mandate that the minimum number of animals necessary will be used in ways that cause the minimum amount of pain or injury. Article 16 requires that the institution using animals form an "animal-experimentation management unit" to oversee the scientific utilization of the laboratory animals. In addition, the institution must establish an ethics committee, which must include a veterinarian and one representative of a private "animal protection group." Under this law, the institution is entitled to employ an "animal protection inspector" or use voluntary "animal protectors" to assist with the supervision of animal use, including inspection of locations where animals are housed and used.

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