Mutants Polymorphisms Transgenic and Gene Targeted Mutations Collectively Known as Mutants

Several thousand mutants, polymorphisms, and transgenes of various sorts are now used in biomedical research, and the numbers will increase substantially over the next few years as targeted mutations and mutants produced by chemical mutagenesis continue to be produced. These have a Mendelian mode of inheritance, though there may be complications due to variation in gene expression, penetrance, viability, and breeding performance. The spontaneous or induced mutations and polymorphisms may be...

Present Role Of Laboratory Animals

As discussed previously, rodents, i.e., mice and rats, account for the overwhelming majority of all laboratory animals. This is reflected in the present scientific development of the exponentially growing number of genetically engineered mouse strains produced. Therefore, after outlining the contributions of a wide range of laboratory animals to Physiology and Medicine Nobel Prizes, we discuss the present role of laboratory animals in medical science, with the focus on mice. However, a final...

Human Benefits Of Animal Experimentation

Broadly speaking, modern animal experimentation began in seventeenth-century England and France. It has been central to our understanding of animal and human physiology ever since. A famous early example is William Harvey's investigation of the role of the heart in blood circulation. Observing the hearts of live animals with opened thoraxes, Harvey was able to see that the blood circulates in the body as a result of contractions of the heart. In the first place, then, when the chest of a living...

References

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