References

1. Ahlquist RP. A study of the adrenotropic receptors. Am J Physiol. 1948;153:586-599.

2. Wax MB, Novack GD, Robin AL. Adrenergic agents. In: Albert DM, Jacobiec FA, eds. Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 2000; Ch. 26, pp 267-300.

3. Brubaker RF, Gaasterland D. The effect of isoproterenol on aqueous humor formation in humans. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984;25:357-359.

4. Wang RF, Camras CB, Podos SM, et al. The role of prostaglandins in the para-aminoclonidine-induced reduction of intraocular pressure. Trans Am Oph-thalmol Soc. 1989;87:94-104.

5. Sulewski ME, Robin AL, Cummings HL, Arkin LM. Effects of topical flurbiprofen on the intraocular pressure lowering of apraclonidine hydrochloride and timolol maleate. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109:807-809.

6. McCannel C, Koskela T, Brubaker RF. Topical flurbiprofen pretreatment does not block apraclonidine's effect on aqueous flow in humans. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991; 109:810-811.

7. Jampel HD, Robin AL, Quigley HA, Pollack IP. Apraclonidine: a one-week dose-response study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:1069-1073.

8. Gabelt BT, Robinson JC, Hubbard WC, et al. Apraclonidine and brimonidine effects on anterior ocular and cardiovascular physiology in normal and sympathectomized monkeys. Exp Eye Res. 1994;59:633-644.

9. Coleman AL, Robin AL, Pollack IP, et al. Cardiovascular and intraocular pressure effects and plasma concentrations of apraclonidine. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108: 1264-1267.

10. Toris CB, Tafoya ME, Camras CB, Yablonski ME. Effects of apraclonidine on aqueous humor dynamics in human eyes. Ophthalmology. 1995;102:456-461.

11. Toris CB, Gleason ML, Camras CB, Yablonski ME. Effects of brimonidine on aqueous humor dynamics in human eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1514-1517.

12. Burke J, Crosson C, Potter D. Can UK-14,304-18 lower IOP in rabbits by a peripheral mechanism? Curr Eye Res. 1989;8:547-552.

13. Morales J, Ho P, Crosson CE. Effect of apraclonidine on intraocular pressure and pupil size in patients with unilateral Horner's syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992;34(suppl):929.

14. Robin A, Novack G. Alpha 2 agonist in the therapy of glaucoma. In: Drance SM, Neufeld AH, eds. Glaucoma: Applied Pharmacology in Medical Treatment. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton; 1991:103-124.

15. Becker B, Ley AP. Epinephrine and acetazolamide in the therapy of the chronic glaucomas. Am J Ophthalmol. 1958;45:639-643.

16. Morrison JC, Robin AL. Adjunctive glaucoma therapy: a comparison of apraclonidine to dipivefrin when added to timolol maleate. Ophthalmology. 1989;96:3-7.

17. Mackool RJ, Muldoon T, Fortier A, Nelson D. Epinephrine-induced cystoid macular edema in aphakic eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1977;95:791-793.

18. Kolker AE, Becker B. Epinephrine maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1968;79:552-562.

19. Albracht DC, LeBlanc RP, Cruz AM, et al. A double-masked comparison of betaxolol and dipivefrin for the treatment of increased intraocular pressure. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;116:307-313.

Wei CP, Anderson JA, Leopold I. Ocular absorption and metabolism of topically applied epinephrine and a dipivalyl ester of epinephrine. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1978;17:315-321.

Kass MA, Mandell AI, Goldberg I, et al. Dipivefrin and epinephrine treatment of elevated intraocular pressure: a comparative study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97: 1865-1866.

Kohn AN, Moss AP, Hargett NA, et al. Clinical comparison of dipivalyl epinephrine and epinephrine in treatment of glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;87:196-201. Hoffman BB, Lefkowitz RJ. Catecholamines and sympathomimetic drugs. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press; 1990:187-220. Chien DS, Homsy JJ, Gluchowski C, Tang-Liu DD. Corneal and conjunctival/scleral penetration of p-aminoclonidine, AGN 190342, and clonidine in rabbit eyes. Curr Eye Res. 1990;9:1051-1059.

Krieglstein GK, Langham ME, Leydhecker W. The peripheral and central neural actions of clonidine in normal and glaucomatous eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1978;17:149-158.

Lee DA, Topper JE, Brubaker RF. Effect of clonidine on aqueous humor flow in normal human eyes. Exp Eye Res. 1984;38:239-246.

Makabe R. Ophthalmological studies with dichlorophenyl-aminoimidazoline with special regard to its effect on intraocular pressure. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1966;91: 1686-1688.

Hasslinger C. Catapresan (2-(2,6-dichlorphenylamino)-2-imidazoline-hydrochlo-ride): a new intraocular pressure lowering agent. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1969;154:95-105.

Hodapp E, Kolker A, Kass MA, et al. The effect of topical clonidine on intraocular pressure. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99:1208-1211.

Robin AL, Coleman A. Apraclonidine hydrochloride: an evaluation of plasma concentrations, and a comparison of its intraocular pressure lowering and cardiovascular effects to timolol maleate. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1990;88:149-162. Coleman AL, Robin AL, Pollack IP. New ophthalmic drugs: apraclonidine hydrochloride. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 1989;2:97-108.

Derick RJ, Robin AL, Walters TR, et al. Brimonidine tartrate: a one-month dose response study. Ophthalmology. 1997;104:131-136.

Brimonidine-ALT Study Group. Effect of brimonidine 0.5% on intraocular pressure spikes following 360° argon laser trabeculoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1995;26: 404-409.

Gharagozloo NZ, Relf SJ, Brubaker RF. Aqueous flow is reduced by the alpha-adrenergic agonist, apraclonidine hydrochloride (ALO 2145). Ophthalmology. 1988: 95:1217-1220.

Gharagozloo NZ, Brubaker RF. Effect of apraclonidine in long-term timolol users. Ophthalmology. 1991;98:1543-1546.

Robin AL. Short-term effects of unilateral 1% apraclonidine therapy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:912-915.

Abrams DA, Robin AL, Pollack IP, et al. The safety and efficacy of topical 1% ALO 2145 (p-aminoclonidine hydrochloride) in normal volunteers. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105:1205-1207.

Krawitz PL, Podos SM. Use of apraclonidine in the treatment of acute angle closure glaucoma [letter]. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108:1208-1209.

Serdahl CL, Galustian J, Lewis RA. The effects of apraclonidine on conjunctival oxygen tension. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989;107:1777-1779.

Nichols AJ. Functions mediated by alpha-adrenoreceptors. In: Ruffolo RR, ed. Al-pha-Adrenoreceptors: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology. New York: Karger; 1991:115-179.

Fahrenbach WH, Bacon DR, Van Buskirk EM. Vasoactive drug effects in the uveal vasculature of the rabbit: a corrosion casting study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989;30(suppl):100.

Orgul S, Bacon DR, Van Buskirk EM, Cioffi GA. Optic nerve vasomotor effects of topical apraclonidine hydrochloride. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80:82-84.

Harris A, Caldemeyer KS, Mansberger SL, Martin BJ. a-Adrenergic agonists effects on ocular hemodynamics. J Glaucoma. 1995;4(suppl 1):S19-S23.

Celiker UO, Celibi S, Celiker H, Celibi H. Effect of topical apraclonidine on flow properties of central retinal and ophthalmic arteries. Acta Ophthalmol. 1996;74:

0 0

Post a comment