Ocular Pharmacology

Simon K. Law and David A. Lee

1.1 Bioavailability in Ocular Compartments, 4

1.1.1 Drug Transfer Rate and Concentration, 5

1.1.2 Drug Absorption, 5

1.2 Aqueous Humor Dynamics, 9

1.2.1 Theories of Production, 9

1.2.2 Rate of Production, 10

1.2.3 Aqueous Outflow, 10

1.3 Tear Film Dynamics, 10

1.4 Drug Formulation, 11

1.4.1 Solution Versus Suspension, 11

1.4.2 Buffering and pH, 12

1.4.3 Osmolality and Tonicity, 12

1.4.4 Viscosity, 13

1.4.5 Preservatives, 13

1.4.6 Drug Delivery by Prodrugs, 14

1.5 New Drug Delivery Vehicles, 14

1.5.1 Emulsions, 14

1.6 Drug Delivery Systems, 15 1.6.1 Ocusert, 16

1.6.2 Liposomes, 17

1.6.3 Slow-Release Contact Lenses, 21

1.6.4 Implantable Reservoirs, 22 1.7 Ocular Use of Steroids, 24

1.7.1 Pharmacology of Steroids, 24

1.7.2 Steroids in Ocular Use, 25

1.7.3 IOP Response With Steroid Use, 25

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