Beta Blockers

Albert S. Khouri, Paul J. Lama, and Robert D. Fechtner

3.1 General Pharmacology, 56

3.2 Mechanism of Action, 56

3.3 Indications, 57

3.4 Contraindications, 57

3.5 Treatment Regimens, 58

3.6 Side Effects, 58

3.6.1 Local Adverse Effects, 58

3.6.2 Systemic Adverse Effects, 59

3.6.3 Central Nervous System Adverse Effects, 60

3.6.4 Cardiovascular System Adverse Effects, 60

3.6.5 Pulmonary Adverse Effects, 61

3.6.6 Metabolic Adverse Effects, 62

3.7 Drug-Drug Interactions, 63

3.8 Drug-Disease Interactions, 64

3.9 Specific Ocular Beta Blockers, 65

3.9.1 Nonselective Beta Blockers, 65

3.9.1.1 Timolol solution, 65

3.9.1.2 Carteolol Hydrochloride 1% (Ocupress), 69

3.9.1.3 Levobunolol Hydrochloride (Betagan), 69

3.9.1.4 Metipranolol 0.3% (OptiPranolol), 70

3.9.2 Selective Beta Blockers, 70 3.9.2.1 Betaxolol Hydrochloride, 70

3.9.3 Combination Drugs, 70

3.10 Conclusion, 70

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