Short Chain Fatty Acids

Short chain fatty acids are not an important dietary nutrient, however, they are being discussed at this point because they are a significant end product of carbohydrate and amino acid bacterial metabolism. Short chain fatty acids are readily absorbed from the human colon, and facilitate the absorption of salt and water by the colon. Colonic epithelium derives 60-70% of its energy from short chain fatty acids with butyrate being the most important in this regard (24). Short chain fatty acids also stimulate mucosal growth in the colon. As stated previously, the major short chain fatty acids produced by intestinal bacterial fermentation are acetate, butyrate, and propionate. Additional end acid products include: lactate, succinate, and formate (25). The fate of these bacterially produced acid end products has been studied to varying extents. In humans, acetate is always found at a concentration of 50 micromolar in fasting venous blood. After a carbohydrate rich meal, these blood levels rise to 100 to 300 micromolar (5). The half-life of acetate in the blood is only a few minutes, and is taken up and metabolized in skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain, and adipocytes for lipogenesis (5). Acetate spares fatty acid oxidation but has only a small influence on glucose metabolism, and has no effect on insulin release in humans.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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