Reflection of Effects on Allergen Uptake Processing and Presentation

The original hygiene hypothesis implicated pathogens in an allergy-preventing role. However, their role may be two-sided (90). Whereas the host immune system may become tolerant towards commensal microbes, this should and will not happen with pathogens (91,92). Therefore, pathogens may have a greater potential to stimulate the neonatal immunity away from the allergic type responsiveness than the commensal microbes towards which tolerance has been formed (90). Conversely, potential pathogens may induce and sustain inflammation and compromise the gut barrier (18,93). This may allow greater numbers of allergens to pass the barrier and alter their presentation to lymphocytes due to the presence of danger signals. Consequently, allergic sensitization may be more likely to occur, and may be aggravated in already sensitized subjects with allergic disease (94-96). E. coli and Bacteroides bacterial groups colonizing these subjects may include strains with such detrimental properties (97-100). Such bacteria were implicated with higher serum total IgE concentrations and sensitivity to cow's milk proteins in studies referred to above (18,44). Some non-pathogenic bacteria, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, may have the opposite effects by reducing gut inflammation either via excluding colonization by pathogens or inducing secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing gut permeability, allergen antigenicity, and fortifying gut defense barrier e.g., by stimulating IgA production (101-110). Intestinal microbes are likely to affect the allergen uptake also by promoting the maturation and integrity of gut barrier but there is little information on how this ability may vary between different bacteria (111).

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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