Probiotics

Currently, there are no commerically available probiotics fulfilling the species specificity criterion applied to probiotics as stated by Saarela and co-workers (79). Despite that, probiotics are utilized in pet animals in the hope to create beneficial alterations in the intestinal microbiota.

Enterococcus faecium SF68 has been documented to enhance specific immunological responses in young dogs (80) and E. faecalis FK-23 stimulated non-specific immune functions in healthy adult dogs (81). E. faecium is also reported to have an effect on canine enteropathogens. It significantly decreased the canine in vitro mucus adhesion of C. perfringens (82). This finding was supported also in vivo (83). On the other hand, E. faecium increased both the in vitro adhesion and fecal shedding of campylobacters (82,83). Pasupathy and co-workers (84) evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the digestibility of food and growth of puppies. They concluded that Lactobacillus supplementation has a favorable effect during the active growth period, although differences between the study group and control group were not significant.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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