The human intestinal microbiota has never been so intensively studied as in this current period. Over the last decade, the use of molecular methods, especially those based on 16S ribosomal RNA, have generated much knowledge on the composition of the intestinal microbiota of especially humans but also animals. The relatively easy accessible fecal sample is the main source of intestinal microbiota used for various analyses. It is uncertain how well fecal samples reflect the composition of the microbiota in the proximal parts of the colon (1,2) but it is certainly very different from the small intestine. In order to study the microbial composition and activity in these sites, one would need in vivo samples from a large number of healthy individuals. Invasive sampling from healthy people is ethically not acceptable. Animal models can be used for invasive sampling (see chapter by Henriksson); however, due to physiological and anatomical differences, animals will have a different microbiota. Therefore, in vitro techniques complement animal studies and offer means to test specific hypotheses in a controlled, replicable manner without using animal models or clinical samplings. With in vitro models, it is possible to simulate the conditions in the human oral cavity, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and in the ascending, transverse, and descending sections of the colon.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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