The intestinal microbiota of humans is comprised of a complex ecosystem of metabolically active microorganisms that reside close to the mucosal surface of the intestine. The bacteria of the intestine can interact with substrates introduced orally or compounds entering the intestinal lumen via the bile, mucosal secretions, or systemically from the circulatory system. This chapter will review the bacterial reactions performed on nutrients and drugs entering the intestine. The composition and distribution of the intestinal microbiota will not be discussed, and the readers are referred to other chapters in this book and review articles that address this topic (1-4). It is, however, important to note that the intestinal microbiota at any given time weighs approximately 110 to 200 grams and consists of at least 400 different species. The number of bacterial cells is approximately ten times greater than the total number of cells comprising the human body. Although the mass of the intestinal microbiome is equivalent to that of a single kidney, the number and diversity of species affords the microbiota a diverse metabolic role in the human body. This chapter will review some of these reactions and implications of these transformations to the host; however, no attempt will be made to exhaustively review all known reactions carried out by the microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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