Introduction

Scientific research is continuously generating new ingredients for food and pharmaceutical products. In pace with consumer awareness of healthy products, considerable efforts are made to find new ingredients with beneficial effects on human health. The health benefits of such ingredients need to be assessed in human trials prior to being developed as a product for wider human consumption. Animal trials, conducted prior to human trials, offer a sound filtering system that provide the opportunity to identify those ingredients that are worthy of the relatively costly human studies that may follow. Animal models are important tools used in the study of human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiology. Specifically, animal models are used when considering the effect of food and pharmaceutical ingredients on GI health and disease. These effects include the metabolic and immunological activities of microorganisms that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

This chapter deals with issues related to the use of animal models in studies of human GI microbiota or specific microorganisms of human origin. It discusses similarities and differences between human and animal physiology and microbiota with specific focus on categories of animal models. The following discussion focuses predominantly on rodents and highlights some limitations and opportunities that relate to categories of rodent models such as "germ-free," "human flora associated" and "surgically or chemically modified."

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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