Info

Hydrogene

No hydrogene

Few species

Mucin

Degraded

No degradation

Some species

SCFAs

Large amounts

Far less

Many species

Tryptic activity

Little or absent

High activity

Few species

Abbreviations: MAC, microflora associated characteristic; GAC, germ-free animal characteristic; SCFAs, short chain fatty acids. Source: From Ref. 8.

Abbreviations: MAC, microflora associated characteristic; GAC, germ-free animal characteristic; SCFAs, short chain fatty acids. Source: From Ref. 8.

Administration of vitamin K1 restored prothrombin levels to normal values within a few hours, but e.g., vitamin K3 was less effective. If the germ-free animals were inoculated with an intestinal microbiota from conventional animals, the prothrombin levels were normalized quickly. The vitamin K dependent plasmaprotein factors II, VII, IX, and X are taking part in the blood coagulation cascade. It has been shown that some bacterial strains were effective in reversing vitamin K deficiency (10). It has also been shown, by hindrance of coprophagy in rodents, that the intestinal microbiota supplies the host with parts of the vitamin B complex.

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