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Abbreviations: HLA, human leukocyte antigen; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; N, number of animals; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.

Abbreviations: HLA, human leukocyte antigen; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; N, number of animals; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.

organisms Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus significantly decreased inflammation in HLA-B27 rats (Schultz, unpublished data). Furthermore, genetically modified probiotics have been developed. Lactococcus lactis was engineered to secrete biologically active IL-10 and a significant reduction in inflammation was observed in both IL-10k/k and dextran sodium sulfate-induced murine colitis models (55). The investigators concluded that genetically engineered bacteria for local administration of a therapeutic agent, such as IL-10, may be a useful strategy in the treatment and prevention of IBD.

Live versus Dead Bacteria

It may not be necessary to administer live bacteria to achieve benefit. Bacterial DNA has been shown to have potent immuno-stimulatory effects. In a trial by Rachmilewitz et al. (54) bacterial DNA was used to attenuate colitis in a number of murine models suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect for bacterial DNA that warrants further study. A more recent study investigated the role of Toll-like receptors in mediating these effects of bacterial DNA (88).

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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