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Zoetendal et al. (56) Total community 16 Finnish and Dutch Inter-individual vari-

Satokari et al. (60) Bifidobacteria

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Zoetendal et al. (62) Total community adults (7 males, 9 females)

1 Finnish adults (3 males, 3 females)

4 NZ adults (2 males, 2 females)

2 NZ adults on pro-biotic trial

50 adults of varying relatedness +4 different primates ation; stability over 6 months was monitored for 2 subjects

Stability of bifidobacteria! component over 4 weeks

Development and validation of group-specific PCR primers for human studies

Monitor changes in LAB during Lactobacillus feeding trial

Impact of genetic relatedness on composition of the fecal microbiota

Differences in TGGE banding profiles demonstrated each individual harbored a unique microbiota (inter-individual variation), although some common bands were seen indicating some dominant bacteria were present in all samples; TGGE profiles were highly consistent over time for the same subject (intra-individual stability) Multiple bifidobacterial biotypes were seen in 5 of the 6 subjects; inter-individual variation; bifidobacterial PCR-DGGE profiles were generally stable (minor pattern changes seen for one subject); low bifidobacterial levels resulted in no PCR product for other subject Lacl-Lac2GC PCR-DGGE enabled detection of Lactobacillus species present at levels > 10s CFU/g of feces (wet weight); inter-individual variation; intra-individual variation over 6 months

PCR-DGGE amplicon profile of probiotic Lactobacillus was only seen during feeding period of trial; dominant Lactobacillus stable for subject 2; intra-individual variation for subject 4

Positive linear relationship between host genetic relatedness and similarity of PCR-DGGE profiles; no significant difference between similarity indices of unrelated persons grouped by either gender or living arrangements; significantly higher similarity between unrelated humans than compared to other primates; no relationship between similarity indices and age difference of siblings (range: 21-56 years)

(Continued)

Table 4 Application of TGGE/DGGE in Human Gut Microbiology (Continued)

Reference

Target population

Subjects

Investigation

Overall results

Favier et al. (63) Total community 2 infants (1 breast- Feasibility of DGGE

fed, 1 mixed-fed) to monitor bac-

Lactobacillus group including Leuco-nostoc, Pediococ-cus spp.

12 adults

1 baby boy

4 infants

(10-18 months old)

Zoetendal et al. (65) Total community and 10 adult patients lactobacillus group (5 males.

(5 males, 5 females)

terial succession in neonates

Lactobacillus diversity and stability (0, 6 and 20 months)

Lactobacillus diversity monitored over time (one day old to 5 months)

Lactobacillus diversity during Lb. paracasei feeding trial

Mucosally associated bacteria in different regions of colon and fecal microbiota

Initial DGGE profiles were simple; bifidobacteria seen after 3 days; more complex DGGE profiles were seen when breastfeeding was supplemented (mixed-feeding and weaning); bacterial succession was seen for both infants Total community PCR-DGGE: inter-individual variation and intra-individual stability Lactobacillus spp. PCR-DGGE: inter-individual variation and variable intra-individual stability (stable over time for some subjects and more dynamic in others) No PCR product seen prior to day 55 (indicating Lactobacillus were below the detection limit); two prominent amplicons {Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. casei) persisted throughout (day 55 to day 147), bacterial succession corresponding to dietary change (solid foods introduced at 3 months of age) Inter-individual variation of Lactobacillus community, with variable intra-individual stability; Lb. paracasei F19 present in profile during administration period, also present in one infant receiving placebo (both baseline and 2 week sample) Total community PCR-DGGE: no PCR product for ascending and transverse colon biopsy samples of one individual; large inter-individual variation of fecal and biopsy profiles; profiles of biopsy samples from same subject highly similar; fecal microbiota and mucosal microbiota profiles were significantly different

Lactobacillus spp. PCR-DGGE: fecal and biopsy samples similar in 6/10 subjects (with single prominent amplicon); minor differences in profiles of different biopsy samples seen in 3/10 subjects

Abbreviations'. DGGE, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; TGGE, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

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