Bifidobacteria colonize the human intestinal tract during or soon after birth and in breast-fed infants they eventually dominate the microbiota (85). The numerical dominance of bifidobacteria is induced by bifidogenic components in breast milk, including oligosaccharides (85,86). Indeed, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the original prebiotics. The concentration of oligosaccharides found in human milk (5 to 10 g/L) is about 100 times that found in cow's milk (0.03 to 0.06 g/L). HMOs are complex with more than 130 identified structures (87). Each individual oligosaccharide is based on a variable

Table 1 Summary of Physiological Effects of Prebiotics

Level of

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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