1

trophic effects on mucosa colonization M resistance W-

colonocytes lamina propria

inflammation

Figure 2 Proposed mechanisms by which prebiotics may ameliorate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Abbreviations: DC, dendritic cell; IL, interleukin; SCFA, short chain fatty acids; Tr, regulatory T cell; TGF, transforming growth factor.

trophic effects on mucosa colonization M resistance W-

colonocytes lamina propria inflammation

Figure 2 Proposed mechanisms by which prebiotics may ameliorate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Abbreviations: DC, dendritic cell; IL, interleukin; SCFA, short chain fatty acids; Tr, regulatory T cell; TGF, transforming growth factor.

milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) (discussed later in this chapter) were then, and remain today, too complex to be synthesized commercially. However, other NDOs were shown to replicate the bifidogenic effect of milk oligosaccharides. The Japanese research community in particular studied the ability to modify the intestinal microbiota using lactulose and fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides. Although often lacking rigorous design, early studies (25-30) at least provided the impetus for later, randomized controlled studies that have demonstrated the notion that some NDOs selectively promote the proliferation of bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract.

Concurrently in the late 1980s and early 1990s, interest was rising in the use of probiotics to modify the intestinal microbial balance. The term "prebiotic" was coined by selective growth and fermentation selective growth and fermentation prebiotics

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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