Horses

The intestinal tract of horses and other monogastric herbivores is characterized by a combination of a large caecum and an even larger colon where fermentation and absorption occurs. Bacteriological studies have shown that the equine intestinal ecosystems contain several hundreds of microbial species, of which most are strict anaerobes (32) and metabolic products from this microbiota provide the horse with a significant part of its energy requirements. There is little information about the microbiota of the small intestine in horses. However, like in the other species of animals, the total microbial counts as well as E. coli and streptococci rise continuously from duodenum to ileum; lactobacilli predominate in the duodenum (33). The acetate concentration increases along the length of the small intestine and molar proportion of acetate, propionate and butyrate 85:10:3 were found in hindgut (34). Acetate is a common fermentation end product from intestinal anaerobes of the genera Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium and Selenomonas (35), and it is indicative for a diet that is low in rapidly fermentable sugars or concentrates. From the data given by Colinder and coworkers (36), horses have a lower total concentration of faecal short-chain fatty acids than pigs, rats and man and even lower than the values in cows. The significantly higher proportion of acetate can depend on its correlation to high-fiber diets and reflects a difference in diets between horses and other monogastric species. Reduced faecal excretion of absorbable compounds, as short-chain fatty acids, is probably due to prolonged stay of digesta in the hindgut; four days or more (37). Daly and Shirgazi-Beechey (38) obtained quantitative data on the predominant bacterial populations inhabiting the equine large intestine by using group-specific oligonucletide probes. Results showed the Spirochetaceae, the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides assemblage, the Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides group and unknown cluster C of Clostridia-ceae to be the largest populations in the equine gut, each comprising 10-30% of the total microbiota in each horse sampled. Other detected notable populations were the Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus group, Fibrobacter and unknown cluster B, each comprising 1-10% of the total microbial community.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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