Experimental Animal Models Gnotobiotic Mice

In experimental studies, the role of the digestive microbiota is determined by comparison between GF and conventional (CV) animals, or GF mice colonized with a human fecal microbiota, the humanized-mice. Several results show that the human fecal microbiota reproduces the same immunostimulatory effects as those produced by the mouse intestinal microbiota (60,61), and consequently, this mouse model is a very interesting tool for human studies. The first step is the demonstration of the effect of the entire intestinal microbiota on a specific immune response by comparison between GF and CV or humanized-mice. The second step is to determine the bacteria that are responsible for the immunomodulatory effect observed. For this purpose, GF mice are colonized with only one or several known bacteria originated from mice or human microbiota. These "gnotobiotic mice," such as GF mice, are reared in isolators under microbial controlled conditions. After oral colonization, the bacteria expand rapidly to colonize the intestine to a very high level within one day. A period of 3 weeks is estimated to be the time required for an optimal stimulatory effect of the intestinal microbiota. Thus gnotobiotic models allow in vivo analysis of the specific role played by the various bacteria composing the intestinal microbiota with respect to immune responses. This has enabled demonstration that the bacterial immunomodulatory effect is sometimes "strain-dependent." A more detailed discussion on the use of GF in the study of the intestinal microbiota is described in chapter 15 by Norin and Midtvedt.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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