Animal models provide opportunities to investigate the effect of food and pharmaceutical ingredients on GI health and the human microbiota in vivo. A wide range of methods that use animal models have been described, including those based on CV, germ-free, and HFA animals. CV animal models are particularly suitable for studies on the effect of orally dosed probiotic strains, or other microorganisms of human origin, on resistance against infection and aberrant formations in the GI mucosa. Germ-free animals provide opportunities to create HFA animals that are suitable for studies on the effect of the total human microbiota in vivo. HFA animals have been used extensively in studies on the role of the human microbiota in nutrition and metabolism of nutrients. The effect of the microbiota on the immune system can be investigated in chemically modified animals, or specific immune deficient "knock out" models. These models have been used in studies on the effect of the human microbiota and probiotic cultures on the progress of IBD and other diseases that may be caused by a dysfunctional immune system. In addition, chemically modified animals have been used in studies on the effect of probiotic cultures on the development of tumors and other aberrant formations. The usefulness of animals in studies on human microbiota and its effect on GI health has a long standing and clear value. In an age where virtual in vivo simulations are becoming increasingly important, it remains clear that animal models will continue to be highly valuable in research on the functions of the human microbiota and activity of specific microbial strains of human origin.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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