Biopsy

A standard colonoscope has a length of 1.30 to 1.60 m, so that the colon and the distal ileum can be evaluated. Long colonoscopes (165-180 cm) are able to reach the cecum even in overly long and tortuous colons (27). Biopsy specimens can be collected with a flexible colonoscope and flexible biopsy forceps. Patients are given a laxative solution to drink the day before the examination. The object of full preparation is to cleanse the entire colon of fecal material, especially the proximal parts, to allow a clear view (27). So it is very likely that the bacteria in the biopsy sample are mucosa associated as the luminal bacteria will have been washed away (94). Typically biopsy samples contain 105-106 bacteria, and the predominant mucosa-associated bacterial community is host specific and uniformly distributed along the colon but differs significantly from the fecal community (95). Biopsy samples are very small in size, and therefore more easily exposed to oxygen during sampling; therefore, the number of viable strict anaerobes might be reduced easily. Relatively high levels of facultative anaerobes are reported to be present in intestinal biopsy samples. To minimize contamination during sampling, the colonoscope jaws will have to be washed in tap water after each biopsy is performed.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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