Batch Type Simulators

The simplest and most commonly used in vitro method in microbiological studies is the use of batch fermentation with intestinal fluid or fecal slurry to study the effects of different added ingredients. These chemostat are typically anaerobically sealed bottles with fecal, caecal or rumen material and these models simulate only a certain part of the animal's GIT, e.g., mouse cecum or cow's rumen. The transit times of the intestinal fluids through those areas are relatively short and therefore the run-times in batch fermenting simulations range from 2-24 hours (3-7). The accumulation of fermentation products (e.g., SCFAs) can change the conditions in the batch fermentation from the microbially balanced starting point to a more competitive environment for the fermentative microbiota, thus affecting the in vivo relevance in longer simulations. More complex fermentation models with several vessels and fluid transitions between vessels either continuously or semi-continuously avoid this accumulation of metabolites and depletion of nutrients.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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