Bacterial Intestinal Formation Of Mutagens

In Table 2 are shown some of the mutagens formed as a result of intestinal bacterial reactions. The bacterial enzymes that catalyze the reactions that potentially can produce mutagens, carcinogens, and tumor promoters are also presented in Table 2. Some of the reactions discussed in this section also act on various drugs, and will again be discussed in the section on drug metabolism.

Intestinal bacterial enzymes that have been implicated in the formation of carcinogens, mutagens, and tumor promoters include: beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, nitroreductase, azoreductase, sulfatases, nitrosation, tryptophanase, 1-alpha-steroid dehydrogenase, and 7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydroxylase (55).

Table 2 Substrates Converted into Mutagens as a Result of Intestinal Bacterial Reactions

Substrate

Bacterial enzyme

2-Nitrofluorene

Nitroreductase

Metronidazole

Nitroreductase

Trypan blue

Azoreductase

Ponceau 3R

Azoreductase

Cycasin

Beta-glucosidase

1-Nitropyrene

Beta-glucuronidase

Cyclamate

Sulfatase

Dimethylamine

Nitrosation

Tryptophan

Tryptophanase

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