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Intelligence Test Scales

The major intelligence tests used by clinicians and educators today are the Wechsler and Stanford-Binet scales. The Weschsler series involves three tests covering roughly three age groups the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV), and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale for Infants-III (WPPSI-III).** In the WAIS-III, various subtests are grouped into verbal and performance areas and, in addition, four index scores can also be derived. These index scores reflect what are called Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, and Processing Speed. The utility of these indexes is somewhat weakened because the last two require administration of supplemental subtests not needed for the customary and valid administration of the usual full intelligence test. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was the first widely used intelligence test and was originally used with school children. It is now in its...

Genotype Phenotype Correlation

How Read Ruler Measurements

Interestingly, some clinical differences between SoS patients with PMs and MDs have been reported (14,17,20). Nagai et al. (14) compared clinical phenotypes between 5 PM and 21 MD SoS patients. Both PM and MD cases showed typical craniofacial features. Remarkably, the peak height at younger than 6 years of age and the intelligence quotient developmental quotient (IQ DQ) in patients older than 6 years were significantly different between PM and MD patients. The values of the standard deviation (SD) scores were 3.3 (PM) and 2.2 (MD), and IQ DQ (mean) were 78 12 (PM) and 57 12 (MD), respectively. In addition, MD patients predominantly showed cardiovascular and urogenital abnormalities, and recurrent convulsions.

Optic Pathway Hypothalamic Gliomas

Due to this, chemotherapeutic options have been explored. Combination chemotherapy with actinomy-cin D and vincristine was used to treat twenty-four patients with progressive OPHGs 22 . Patients had a median age of 1.6 years at the time of diagnosis and were followed for a median of 4.3 years. Patients were treated with six 8-week cycles of vincristine and actinomycin-D. Of these patients, 62.5 per cent had stable or responsive disease and 37.5 per cent had clinical progression. Median time to progression was 3 years. Mean Intelligence Quotient (IQ) testing on patients who received only chemotherapy was 103. Seven patients had sequential IQ testing before and after therapy, and of these, none demonstrated a decrease in IQ scores. Based on this study, it was concluded that chemotherapy could significantly delay the need for radiation therapy in some children while avoiding severe neurotoxicity.

Convergent and Discriminant Validity

Given the lack of knowledge about the true attributes of objects, convergence across different methods for the same attribute is often the best alternative. This type of validity has been called convergent validity (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). Demonstrating convergent validity is not sufficient, however, because convergence alone does not yet guarantee that the methods measure what they should measure. It only shows that the methods measure the same factors. As previously outlined, some or even all of the common factors two methods share may be diagnosti-cally irrelevant. Therefore, additional validation strategies and validity criteria are important (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955 Messick, 1989). In the present context, discriminant validity is a criterion of special interest (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). If a method predominantly measures what it should, it will not converge with measures for attributes unrelated to the attribute of interest, whereas highly consistent individual differences across...

Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale

Blindfolded Test Subject

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (SB FE) is a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults, from age two through mature adulthood. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was originally developed to help place children in appropriate educational settings. It can help determine the level of intellectual and cognitive functioning in preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults, and assist in the diagnosis of a learning disability, developmental delay, mental retardation, or giftedness. It is used to provide educational planning and placement, neuropsycholo-gical assessment, and research. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is generally administered in a school or clinical setting. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is considered to be one of the best and most widely used intelligence tests available. It is especially useful in providing intellectual assessment in young children, adolescents, and young adults. The...

Harringtons Conclusions

The researcher (Harrington, 1975, 1976) used six genetically distinct strains of rats to represent ethnicities. He then composed six populations, each with different proportions of the six rat strains. Next, Harrington constructed six intelligence tests resembling Hebb-Williams mazes. These mazes, similar to the Mazes subtest of the Wechsler scales, are commonly used as intelligence tests for rats. Harrington reasoned that tests normed on populations dominated by a given rat strain would yield higher mean scores for that strain. The focus of Harrington's (1975, 1976) work was reduced scores for minority examinees, an important avenue of investigation. Artifactually low scores on an intelligence test could lead to acts of race discrimination, such as misassignment to educational programs or spurious denial of employment. This issue is the one over which most court cases involving test bias have been contested (Reynolds, Lowe, et al., 1999).

Chronological Age Differences

Cattell Culture Free Test

A person's score on an intelligence test is not a fixed number that remains invariant from year to year and test to test. The fact that test scores are not perfectly reliable means that a person's score will change somewhat with time, test, and conditions of administration. For example, IQ scores on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale vary on the average about 5 points from testing to testing, though variations as large as 20 points can occur with dramatic changes in physical health, emotional adjustment, or living circumstances. Of particular interest to developmental psychologists have been age-related changes in intelligence test scores. The results of earlier cross-sectional studies (e.g., Jones & Conrad, 1933 Yerkes, 1921) suggested that, on the average, test scores decline steadily after late adolescence. For example, Yerkes found that mean scores on the Army Examination Alpha administered to large groups of American soldiers during and shortly after World War I declined from...

Implications of Verbal Performance Discrepancy

In patients with developmental or maturational problems, it is often found that some areas of cognitive functioning are strongly developed and intact while other areas are markedly underdeveloped. Such a configuration can be reflected in an improbable difference between verbal and performance functioning. Learning disabilities may involve maturational delays in which disturbances of motor coordination or visual-motor coordination can be affected to such an extent that performance functioning is substantially impaired. In this instance, a contrast between verbal and performance capacities can readily be seen. The presence of a learning disability involving a developmental delay with minimal organic dysfunction may also impair verbal processing. Such pathology can also be reflected in discrepant functioning between verbal and performance skills on the intelligence test.

Cultural Test Bias As An Explanation

For SES, Eells, Davis, Havighurst, Herrick, and Tyler (1951) summarized the logic of the CTBH as follows If (a) children of different SES levels have experiences of different kinds and with different types of material, and if (b) intelligence tests contain a disproportionate amount of material drawn from cultural experiences most familiar to high-SES children, then (c) high-SES children should have higher IQ scores than low-SES children. As Eells et al. observed, this argument tends to imply that IQ differences are artifacts that depend on item content and do not reflect accurately any important underlying ability (p. 4) in the individual. Some authors, most notably Mercer (1979 see also Lonner, 1985 Helms, 1992), have reframed the test bias hypothesis over time. Mercer argued that the lower scores of ethnic minorities on aptitude tests can be traced to the anglo-centrism, or adherence to White, middle-class value systems, of these tests. Mercer's assessment system, the System of...

Wechsler adult intelligence scale

The WAIS is also administered for diagnostic purposes. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores reported by the WAIS can be used as part of the diagnostic criteria for mental retardation, specific learning disabilities, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Wechsler intelligence scales are not considered adequate measures of extremely high and low intelligence The Wechsler intelligence tests, which include the WAIS, the WISC, and the WPPSI (Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence), are the most widely used intelligence assessments and among the most widely used neuropsychological assessments. Wechsler published the first version of the WAIS in 1939, initially called the Wechsler-Bellevue. The newest version is the WAIS-III (the third edition, most recently updated in 1997). Since Wechsler's death in 1981, the Wechsler tests have been revised by the publisher, the Psychological Corporation.

Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale

It was Wechsler's hope that his test would prove to be not only a valid measure of adult intellectual functioning but would also contribute to making clinical diagnoses. Unlike the age-scale format of the Stanford-Binet, the Wechsler-Bellevue was a point scale on which points were earned for passing subtests and were then converted to scaled scores and IQs. The test as a whole was divided into two sections, Verbal and Performance, consisting of five to six subtests each. On the verbal subtests, the examinee provided verbal answers to a series of questions on the performance subtests, the examinee performed a task requiring perceptua motor responses. Each of the subtests was scored separately, the raw scores being converted to standard scores having a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. Three IQs Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale were determined on a standard score (deviation IQ scale having a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. The difference between the Verbal and...

Cognitive Organization and Reality Testing

Second, additional cognitive factors having to do with thinking, logic, judgment, memory, abstraction, and rational planning are explored. The manner in which these capacities function forms the basis of the person's intellectual structure. This structure is reflected in the analysis of intelligence test results, which is sufficiently important in the overall analysis of cognitive functioning to require a separate section.

Symptoms Cognitive Deficits

And AD patients (Razani et al., 2001). Visuospatial impairment occurred in roughly the same frequency as first symptoms in AD and FTD (Lindau et al., 2000), although looking at relative scores, rather than absolute scores, left FTD patients performed worse on Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ) minus Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) compared to AD and right FTD patients (Razani et al., 2001).

Intellectual Functioning

The intelligence test is a special measure that primarily helps to assess a wide spectrum of cognitive features. The manner in which such cognitive features operate for the patient needs to be delineated. Departures from sound reality testing often are reflected in quantitative and qualitative results of the overall findings of the intelligence test, as well as in scores of particular subtests of the scale. A substantive and clinically meaningful use of the intelligence test is one in which cognitive analysis supersedes the importance of reporting the I.Q. figure. No aspect of the data from intelligence testing can stand alone. In this sense an I.Q. score must be integrated in the report in a way that brings focus to the development of personality hypotheses, deepening and amplifying emerging themes and noting effects of cultural and ethnic influences. The same principle of integration is true for the components of cognitive structure and their implications in relation to reality...

Does CBCA Differentiate between Liars and Truth Tellers

Which give the test psychological meaning and make interpretation possible (Kline, 1993). An intelligence test is a standardised test. If a person obtains a score of 130, then we know that they are very intelligent and also that they are more intelligent than someone who obtains a score of 70. This is not the case for CBCA assessments. A child with a low CBCA score is not necessarily fabricating. Other factors (for example, low mental capability of the child) may have influenced the CBCA outcome. Similarly, a child with a high CBCA score is not necessarily telling the truth (for example, the child might have been well coached by a parent, especially one who knows about CBCA). Without any norms at all the meaning of a test score is impossible to gauge. Therefore, standardisation of a test is essential. In an effort to standardise CBCA assessments, the validity checklist has been developed (Steller, 1989). This contains a set of topics which SVA experts address (such as 'cognitive...

Use of Standardized Methods

For many clinicians (especially psychologists), self-report instruments (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI ) and clinician-administered psychological tests (e.g., the Wechsler intelligence scales, the Rorschach) are invaluable sources of information in the assessment phase. The majority of standardized measures have not been normed on American Indian or Alaska Native populations, however. Lacking such norms, it is difficult to judge whether elevated symptomatology indicate psychopathology or nonpathological cultural variation. For example, Pollack and Shore (1980) reported consistent elevations in the F, Pd, and Sc scales of the MMPI within urban Indian psychiatric patients regardless of gender, age, tribal affiliation, or diagnosis (including schizophrenia and depression). They concluded, It appears that cultural influence overrides individual pathology and personality differences in influencing the pattern of the MMPI (p. 948). In a similar vein, the...

Path Modeling and Predictive Bias

Figure 4.1 A path model showing predictive bias. The arrow from Group Membership to Intelligence Test Score represents bias. Figure 4.1 A path model showing predictive bias. The arrow from Group Membership to Intelligence Test Score represents bias. The path from group membership to intelligence test score denotes bias. Its beta value, then, should be small. The absence of this path would represent bias of zero.

Translation And Cultural Testing

The findings reviewed above do not apply to translations of tests. Use of a test in a new linguistic culture requires that it be redeveloped from the start. One reason for the early success of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was that Terman reconceptualized it for the United States, reexamining Binet's theory of intelligence, writing and testing new items, and renorming the scales (Reynolds, Lowe, et al., 1999).

Cognitive Development

The psychometric approach to assessing cognitive abilities by means of specific tests has, for the most part, not adhered to any specific theory. Rather, it has been guided by the empirical results of correlational and factor-analytic studies designed to isolate the basic dimensions of intellectual functioning. Recently, more attention has been devoted to establishing certain theoretical foundations, based on research in child development, brain physiology, information-processing, and computer-oriented concepts. For example, construction of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) was guided by Cattell's theoretical distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence. Certain intelligence tests are also based on neuropsychological theories such as Aleksandr Luria's conception of different brain areas as being responsible for simultaneous and successive processing of information (see Das, Naglieri, & Kirby, 1994). Of all conceptions of intelligence, however, the...

Organic Impairment Disorders

In relation to this localized and generally mild type of neurological impairment, the psychologist can gather response samples throughout the test protocol that suggest minimal brain involvement as the cause of an array of imperfect responses. With graphic material, for example, such imperfections include difficulties with closure, line instability, collision features, pressured line quality, difficulty in maintaining symmetry, or self-doubts expressed by frequent questioning of the examiner about whether designs were copied well. In response to the inkblots, questionable form responses may appear, and arbitrary use of color and poor color integration also may be seen. Impulse features in behavior as well as in protocol responses will be broadly represented. On the figure drawing, the subject's productions may be primitive and childlike. On the intelligence test, highly scattered results are seen. Some subtests remain intact and others will reflect...

Adaptive Function of the

On the tests that are administered, the psychologist who reports positive findings of a sound adaptive function of the ego will necessarily also find reasonably intact cognitive organization and good reality testing. The psychologist can then report a variety of highly adaptational strengths, including flexibility in problem solving the existence of creative and inventive resources the ability to change set when appropriate a sense of originality that may be seen, especially on the pro-jective material stability and evenness of functioning reflecting a strong, adaptive assimilation of unconscious fantasy a relative evenness of scores on the subtests comprising the intelligence test. The positive qualities reflect stability and an overall resourcefulness that reveal an eagerness to seek out and master a variety of challenges. In terms of diagnostic implications, the successful operation of this ego function reflects a well-integrated personality. In such an adaptive personality, ego...

Estimating Potential Levels of Intellectual Functioning

A discussion of the results of intelligence testing can be considerably enhanced by including estimates of the person's potential level of intellectual functioning. An analysis and discussion of the individual's potential broadens the usefulness of the report on several grounds. The reader of the report learns about an exceedingly important yet not readily visible dimension of the person's makeup. This information specifies the strength that is potentially attainable if impediments did not hamper a fuller expression of the patient's capacity. Thus, the subject's potential for growth is suggested by estimating optimal intellectual functioning. The information about this aspect of the person's potential for growth consequently enriches the perception of the individual in both present and future considerations. From the data collected in the administration of the intelligence test, including the I.Q. scores, subtest scores, and computations involving these scores, there are several ways...

Teaching Students How To Construct An Assessment Battery

First, an intellectual measure should be included, even if the person's intelligence level appears obvious, because it allows the assessor to estimate whether there is emotional interference in cognitive functioning. For this we recommend the WAIS-III or the WISC-III, although the use of various short forms is acceptable if time is an important factor. For people with language problems of one type or another, or for people whose learning opportunities have been atypical for any number of reasons (e.g., poverty, dyslexia, etc.), a nonverbal intelligence test might be substituted if an IQ measure is necessary. The Wechsler tests also offer many clues concerning personality functioning, from the pattern of interaction with the examiner, the approach to the test, the patient's attitude while taking it, response content, as well as from the style and approach to the subtest items, and the response to success or failure. If these issues are not relevant for the particular referral...

Other Extracerebellar Signs and Symptoms

Some SCA10 patients of Mexican origin have additional phenotypes beyond cerebellar degeneration and epileptic seizures (Grewal et al. 1998, 2002 Lin and Ashizawa 2003 Matsuura et al. 1999, 2000 Rasmussen et al. 2001). More extra-cerebellar signs and non-neuronal involvement have been observed in some families. Variable degrees of pyramidal signs, including hyperreflexia, leg spasticity and Babinski's sign, were reported. Affected individuals often complain of mild sensory loss in distal lower extremities, and nerve conduction studies confirmed the presence of polyneuropathy. Some patients have low intelligence quotient (IQ), and brief neuropsychiatric evaluation by MMPI demonstrated depressive, aggressive and or irritable traits. Again, these extra-cerebellar phenotypes further suggested that other neural tissues have different susceptibilities to the d(ATTCT) expansion in the SCA10 gene. Interestingly, one family also showed hepatic, cardiac and hematological abnormalities in the...

Learning disability

For practical purposes, LD is defined in terms not only of low IQ (intelligence quotient) test results, but also difficulty in coping independently and or behavioural problems. Below 70 is the most frequently used marker for LD. Corresponding IQ levels are about 50-69 for mild cases, and below 49 for severe ones, but many people with IQs below 70 lead independent lives and do not need special medical or social care.

Mental Retardation And Learning Disorders

The individual's ethnic or cultural background should be taken into consideration during intellectual testing procedures. Tests in which the person's relevant characteristics are represented in the standardization sample of the test should be considered. Similarly, examiners should be familiar with aspects of the individual ethnic or cultural background (DSM-TV, 1994, p. 44). For example, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales are recommended to assess IQ levels and learning problems in children and adults. As noted by Golden (1990), however, these scales are heavily influenced by cultural and language concepts that reflect

Performance Greater than Verbal

A special condition that needs to be noted regarding higher performance scores and lower verbal scores concerns the issue of the testing of bilingual individuals. In many cases, functioning is reduced in the verbal test scores because these bilingual individuals are from immigrant populations or have been exposed to bicultural influences where the cultural factors associated with various verbal test items are unknown to them or have not been strongly emphasized. The cultural layer inherent in the verbal portion of individual intelligence tests is not fully accessible to those steeped in another culture. Further, the efforts of bilingual people to master a new language may dilute their facility in the verbal sphere because of the division of attention they have been required to maintain between the use and mastery of different languages. Even if translation is used during testing, there will be a departure from the norms used in the construction of the intelligence test, resulting in...

Immature Control Dominated

The psychological test results of an inhibited person can include an absence of impulse-dominated responses on the Rorschach, a restricted and narrow range of determinants, and a substantial concern with and focus on form. A predominance of restricted responses reflects protection against expressive behavior. Matura-tional level is accordingly underdeveloped, even though controls may be excessively developed. The protocol profile includes extremely well-defined line quality in all of the graphic material, reflecting excessive concern with the management of anxiety. On the Thematic Apperception Test, stories frequently appear to be rather descriptive but lacking in affect and action. On the intelligence test, the subject's performance on subtests emphasizing a fund of accumulated knowledge, such as Information and Vocabulary, may yield unusually high scores.

Why Theories Of Intelligence Matter To Society

Students who apply to competitive independent schools in many locations and notably in New York City must present an impressive array of credentials. Among these credentials, for many of these schools, is a set of scores on either the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R Wechsler, 1980) or the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (Thorndike, Hagen, & Sattler, 1985). If the children are a bit older, they may take instead the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-3 Wechsler, 1991). The lower level version of the Wechsler test is used only for children ages 3 to 7 1 2 years. The higher level version of the Wechsler test is used for somewhat older children ages 6 to 16 years, 11 months of age. The Stanford-Binet test is used across a wider range of ages, from 2 years through adult. The need to take tests such as these will not end with primary school. For admission to independent schools, in general, regardless of level,...

Developmental and Learning Disabilities

These difficulties must begin before the person reaches the age of 18 for the diagnosis to apply. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) range associated with this condition is typically 70 or below, although certain test-specific and other considerations may result in such persons having IQ scores several points higher (APA, 1994, pp. 39-45 Koocher, Norcross and Hill, 1998).

Inadequate Personality

On the test protocol, percepts may be interesting and varied but all performance tests will be impaired. Although few responses may be offered on the Rorschach, for example, some of them may reflect originality, high intelligence, and creativity. In contrast, on figure drawings, stick figures may be produced and on the intelligence test, performance scores can be significantly constricted.

Testing of Preschool Children

In the area of testing preschool children, special emphasis is placed on noting signs of disturbance and lags in maturation. In its most recent fifth revision, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale can be employed to assess children as young as two years of age while the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III can be used for children two and a half and older. Both instruments supply a large body of data concerning cognitive and personality functioning. These findings need to be amplified by observations in a free-play situation as well as the use of specialized projective test approaches for preschoolers. Such projective devices include, but obviously are not limited to, a number of possible sentence completion formats, orally presented, questions based on animal metaphors as well as an assessment of the child's foremost wishes.

Performance Subtests Wechsler Scales

Thus, the performance subtests of the Wechsler intelligence scales sample a variety of cognitive and personality variables, including both short-term and practical, working memory, planning, abstraction, conceptualization, the need for structure, the ability to learn new material, perception of details, perceptual analysis, visual-motor coordination, identifying patterns, and sensitivity to social interactions. Because most of the performance subtests are timed, the subject's functioning in relation to speed can yield indications about a variety of diagnostic possibilities. For example, two broad diagnostic implications include depressive possibilities because of psychomotor slowness and impulsive conditions that cause a variety of errors. In addition, maintaining qualities of focus, planning and persistence in these visually oriented areas requires that subjects control anxiety, overcome confusion, tolerate frustration and limit distraction, oppositionalism, obsessionalism,...

The Examinerexaminee Relationship

Contrary findings notwithstanding, many psychological professionals continue to assert that White examiners impede the test performance of minority group members (Sattler, 1988). Sattler and Gwynne (1982) reviewed 27 published studies on the effects of examiners' race on the test scores of children and youth on a wide range of cognitive tests. Participants were students in preschool through Grade 12, most from urban areas throughout the United States. Tests included the Wechsler Scales the Stanford-Binet, Form L-M the PPVT the Draw-a-Man Test the Iowa Test of Preschool Development and others. In 23 of these studies, examiner's race (Black or White) and test scores of racial groups (Black or White) had no statistically significant association. Sattler and Gwynne reported that the remaining 4 studies had methodological limitations, including inappropriate statistical tests and designs. Design limitations included lack of a comparison group and of external criteria to evaluate the...

Defenses and the Report

When crisis situations exist and individual defenses as well as character patterns are overwhelmed, the person can become increasingly flooded with highly idiosyncratic primary process impulses, images, and ruminations. This personality disorganization and its expression in primary process responses can be seen throughout the protocol. Extremely scattered subtest scores on the intelligence test are an effect of this sort of disorganization. Certain subtests, such as Information and Vocabulary, utilize intellectual defenses that may aid the individual in attempting to be more organized thus, scores on those subtests may tend to be higher. Other subtests, such as those based on capacities for abstraction and broad conceptual strengths, require intact organization of the personality consequently, the demands of such subtests tend to exacerbate the subject's disorganization, producing lowered scores.

Test Score Fairness

From the inception of psychological testing, problems with racial, ethnic, and gender bias have been apparent. As early as 1911, Alfred Binet (Binet & Simon, 1911 1916) was aware that a failure to represent diverse classes of socioeconomic status would affect normative performance on intelligence tests. He deleted classes of items that related more to quality of education than to mental faculties. Early editions of the Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler intelligence scales were standardized on entirely White, native-born samples (Terman, 1916 Terman & Merrill, 1937 Wechsler, 1939,1946,1949). In addition to sample limitations, early tests also contained items that reflected positively on whites. Early editions of the Stanford-Binet included an Aesthetic Comparisons item in which examinees were shown a white, well-coiffed blond woman and a disheveled woman with African features the examinee was asked Which one is prettier The original MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) was normed on a...


Most people would probably agree that individuals vary in brightness or intelligence, in their capacity for adaptive thinking and action. There is considerable controversy about the extent to which these variations in intelligence are genetically determined, the extent to which they remain constant throughout the life cycle, and the point in development at which such variations become measurable and predictable entities. The reliability and validity of infant intelligence tests are questionable. During the first two years of life, there is rarely consistency between an infant's performances on the same test at different times, or between an individual's performance on different tests given at the same time. At any given point in development, it is not possible to predict from a child's score on one test what his or her score might be on another test. Infants test scores are poor indices of performance on intelligence tests for older children such as the Stanford Binet and the Wechsler...

Recency of Sampling

The problem of normative obsolescence has been most robustly demonstrated with intelligence tests. The Flynn effect (Herrnstein & Murray, 1994) describes a consistent pattern of population intelligence test score gains over time and across nations (Flynn, 1984, 1987, 1994, 1999). For intelligence tests, the rate of gain is about one third of an IQ point per year (3 points per decade), which has been a roughly uniform finding over time and for all ages (Flynn, 1999). The Flynn effect appears to occur as early as infancy (Bayley, 1993 S. K. Campbell, Siegel, Parr, & Ramey, 1986) and continues through the full range of adulthood (Tulsky & Ledbetter, 2000). The Flynn effect implies that older test norms may yield inflated scores relative to current normative expectations. For example, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R Wechsler, 1974) currently yields higher full scale IQs (FSIQs) than the WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) by about 7 IQ points.

Testing Adults

Administering an intelligence test, or any other psychometric instrument, is not simply a matter of reading a set of printed directions to the examinees. Even when administering a group test to many people simultaneously, the examiner should study the test format and directions carefully beforehand, making certain that the test is scheduled at a convenient, appropriate time, ensuring that the testing environment is conducive to the examinees' doing their best without cheating, and obtaining the required informed consent of the examinees or persons legally responsible for them. During the test, the directions should be followed carefully, and the examiner should remain alert and prepared for special problems and emergencies. Although the establishment of rapport, a cordial, friendly relationship between the examiner and the examinees, is less crucial in group than in individual administration, in either case, the examiner should remain interested, patient, and tactful.


This analysis has indicated the cognitive and intellectual skills that can be related to each of the subtests on the Wechsler intelligence scales. The particular capacities associated with each subtest can be utilized to compare and contrast the different subtests in order to indicate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the subject. In addition to the information provided by these comparisons, diagnostic hypotheses can be considered by contrasting subtest scores. Whenever possible, these hypotheses should be related to material derived from other instruments in the test battery to ensure that they are relevant to and supported by the overall test data. Underlying much of the person's style of responding to the demands of both verbal and performance items is the manner in which anxiety is mobilized and handled. Characteristic behaviors are utilized to manage the anxiety generated by the pointed nature of the questioning involved in the intelligence scales. Similarly, the quality...

Identifying Data

This section of the intelligence test report presents a description of the person tested and the reason for the referral as it has been offered by the referring source. The importance of this section lies in its precise description of the individual being considered and of the nature of the problem the report will attempt to clarify. Also relevant is a concise outline of the history of the problem and past efforts undertaken to address it. Facts and figures about the child's age and grade and other classification data form a natural preamble that can be presented concisely.

Inv Dup22

Inv Dup Chromosome

Inv dup(22)(q11) is associated with cat eye syndrome (CES), which is characterized by abnormalities ofthe eye, heart, anus, kidneys, skeleton, gastrointestinal tract, and face (41-43). Patients may show mild mental retardation, but many are within the normal intelligence quotient (IQ) range. The syndrome derives its name from ocular coloboma, although only about half of CES patients show this feature. Preauricular skin tags or pits are the most constant feature. The CES phenotype is surprisingly variable, ranging from apparently normal to multiple severe and life-threatening malformations. The incidence of CES has been estimated to be 1 50-150,000 (OMIM 115470). Because some patients are mildly affected, there are numerous cases of inheritance of the CES chromosome, sometimes through multiple generations (44).

Clinical Overview

Individuals with WBS usually have mild mental retardation, with an average intelligence quotient (IQ) of between 55 and 60, although there is a wide range of recorded values. The most striking aspect of the WBS phenotype is the distinct behavioral profile, which encompasses a unique combination of both friendliness and anxiety (11,14). It is characterized by impaired cognition, hyperreactivity, sensory integration dysfunction, delayed expressive and receptive language skills, and multiple developmental motor disabilities affecting balance, strength, coordination, and motor planning (12). In addition, approx 70 of WBS individuals suffer from attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and there is a high incidence of anxiety and simple phobias (12,15,16).


The floor of a test represents the extent to which an individual can earn appropriately low standard scores. For example, an intelligence test intended for use in the identification of individuals diagnosed with mental retardation must, by definition, extend at least 2 standard deviations below normative expectations (IQ 70). In order to serve individuals with severe to profound mental retardation, test scores must extend even further to more than 4 standard deviations below the normative mean (IQ 40). Tests without a sufficiently low floor would not be useful for decision-making for more severe forms of cognitive impairment. A similar situation arises for test ceiling effects. An intelligence test with a ceiling greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean (IQ 130) can identify most candidates for intellectually gifted programs. To identify individuals as exceptionally gifted (i.e., IQ 160), a test ceiling must extend more than 4 standard deviations above normative expectations....

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