Inflammatory Bowel Disease - A Holistic Perspective

The IBS Miracle

Today to Discover: My unique holistic system to immediately get symptomatic relief and completely cure your condition within 3 to 8 weeks using my powerful 100% natural system. The horrible truth about conventional Ibs treatments. A list of the original hidden research papers (together with all the details you need to locate them yourself) published by scientists and MDs reporting how they cured Ibs using natural methods so you'll see that my system is backed by scientific evidence! 78 different scientific sources to be exact! How simple over the counter products will immediately reduce cramps and abdominal pain. The dietary changes you should make to live an Ibs-free life. How to make your body combat Ibs and re-balance itself. The link between lifestyle and Ibs. The specific foods that trigger Ibs symptoms. Foods that are marketed as being ery healthy that will actually cause your Ibs to get worse. Herbs that are extremely potent in stopping diarrhea, constipation and gas. Simple alternative treatments that will cure your Ibs faster than you ever thought possible. I will show you step by step how to do this. The food items you have to include in your diet if you want to get rid of your Ibs fast. The food items you should limit if you want to get rid of Ibs. Convenient printable charts that will tell you exactly the foods to avoid and the foods to include. The secret 100% natural remedies that you should use, and are guaranteed to make a dramatic impact on your Ibs condition in just a few days! More here...

The IBS Miracle Summary


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Irritable Bowel Syndrome Relief Secrets

Here is just some of what you will discover inside Irritable Bowel Syndrome Relief Secrets: What causes Ibs this information may surprise you. 4 ways to improve your immune system and reduce your symptoms follow these tips and you'll put yourself on the fast track to reclaiming control of your life. The similarity in symptoms between Ibs and having a sensitive, reactive colon and what this means as far as the treatment you should pursue. Why stress is a catalyst for Ibs symptoms and what you can do to begin reducing your symptoms immediately. The common symptoms of Ibs, including the four main ones and how to manage them all effectively. How Ibs is usually diagnosed and whether the two main types of tests doctors usually run are actually effective or not. Effective strategies you can use to treat your Ibs symptoms and even eliminate them for good. Practical exercises for you to do that lead you step-by-step through the information revealed in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Treatments and ensure that you stay on track to gaining control of your Ibs and improving the quality of your life! More here...

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Relief Secrets Summary

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

It is suggested that glucosamine has an anti-inflammatory action that may include an increased production of heparan sulfate proteoglycans by the vascular endothelium, thereby improving the endothelium's barrier function (McCarty 1998b). It is further suggested that the step in glycoprotein synthesis involving the amino sugar is relatively deficient in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and this could reduce the synthesis of the glycoprotein cover that protects the mucosa from damage by bowel contents (Burton & Anderson 1983, Winslet et al 1994). In a pilot study, N-acetyl glucosamine proved beneficial in children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (Salvatore et al 2000).

How Probiotics May Exert an Effect in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The ability of probiotic bacteria to induce an anti-inflammatory or regulatory cytokine profile by in vitro immunocompetent cells has been confirmed (65). In vitro studies examined the effect of probiotics on cytokine production by human intestinal mucosa. Both Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus bulgaricus down-regulated the production of TNF-a from normal and inflamed mucosa (66,67). The effects of various lactic acid bacteria on the cytokine profile produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro have been studied (57,68-71). Alterations in cytokine production have been observed in the IL-10 knockout mouse model which develops colitis similar to human inflammatory bowel disease. The anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118, and Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, when administered both orally and subcutaneously to IL-10 knockout mice, were accompanied by a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-g, TNF-a and IL-12 from splenocytes, while levels of the...

Human Trials of Probiotics in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Evidence that the enteric microbiota play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and results from models of IBD which have demonstrated beneficial effects for probiotics has prompted clinical studies examining the effect of these organisms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

The Importance Of The Enteric Microbiota In Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Considerable evidence implicates the enteric microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (Table 1) (7,8,30,31). Firstly, mucosal inflammation occurs in areas of the gut with highest bacterial numbers. Secondly, surgical diversion of the fecal stream has been associated with clinical improvement in the distal bowel, but relapse is predictable following surgical restoration. Thirdly, putative therapeutic efficacy is seen with the use of antibiotics in colonic disease. Fourthly, immune reactivity to intestinal bacteria is detectable in patients with inflammatory bowel disease suggesting a loss of immune tolerance to components of the microbiota (32,33). Fifthly, there are reports of increased numbers of bacteria within the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with controls (34,35). The highest bacterial numbers have been seen in CD patients and numbers increase with severity of disease. Finally, the description of the first susceptibility gene for...

Specific Microorganisms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Of transient pathogens include the disruption of the mucosal barrier (allowing increased uptake of luminal antigens), mimicry of self-antigens and activation of the mucosal immune system via modulation of transcription factors such as NFkB. However, a direct cause and effect relationship has not been established for any of these organisms. Indeed, conditions favoring transmission of infection (low socio-economic status, overcrowding, poor sanitation) appear to protect against inflammatory bowel disease, arguing against an infectious aetiology (50). Since there is evidence for the role of luminal microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, the alteration of the microbiota by the introduction of probiotic bacteria may result in clinical improvement of the condition. Conventional drug therapy for inflammatory bowel disease involves suppression of the immune system or modulation of the inflammatory response. Probiotics offer an alternative without the risk of side...

Clinical Presentation and Investigations

Site-specific symptomatology and investigations are alluded to in the relevant chapters but some general features can be noted. Clinical presentation can be non-specific such as weight loss or anaemia, or focussed on either the upper (nausea, vomiting, haematemesis) or lower (abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum, change in bowel habit) gastrointestinal tract. An iron-deficiency anaemia as measured by the haemoglobin level red blood cell indices and serum iron ferritin levels often means occult blood loss from ingestion of NSAIDs or from the surface of an ulcer or polypoid lesion. Serum albumin levels are decreased due to the reduced food intake, protein-losing enteropathy or liver disease. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are increased in neoplasia, vasculitis and acute flare-up of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Peripheral white blood cell counts and body temperature are often elevated in acute infection or neoplasia, e.g., leukaemia. Features...

Neoplastic Conditions

Carcinoma usually occurs in late-middle-aged females and many (50-75 ) present already with regional lymph node metastasis and involvement of the gall bladder bed, liver or other direct spread to duodenum, stomach, colon and peritoneum. Calculi (80-90 of cases), chronic inflammatory bowel disease and sclerosing cholangitis are risk factors. Often clinically inapparent and found incidentally as diffuse thickening of the wall at cholecystectomy for gall stones, 10-20 are initially diagnosed by histology of routine blocks, there having been no macroscopic suspicion of tumour. Fundal in location (60 ) and grossly diffuse (70 ) or polypoid (30 ), the vast majority (95 ) are adenocarcinomas of tubular or papillary patterns arising from a sequence of intestinal metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma. Assessment of the depth of invasion can be difficult and extension of carcinoma in situ into Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses must be distinguished from true invasion of the wall. Perineural involvement is...

Change in bowel habit

A change in bowel habit represents an important symptom as it may be due to a GI lesion, such as a rectal carcinoma, an adenomatous polyp or be due to malabsorption. However, a change in bowel habit can occur in benign conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome. Inflammatory bowel disease

Why Modify The Intestinal Microbiota

Far from being inconsequential to our lives, the bacteria residing within our gastrointestinal tracts are highly important to our health and well-being. They provide us with a barrier to infection by intestinal pathogens (1), much of the metabolic fuel for our colonic epithelial cells (2), and contribute to normal immune development and function (3,4). Intestinal bacteria have also been implicated in the etiology of some chronic diseases of the gut such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (5,6). As we age, changes

Proposed Health Benefits Of Probiotics

Infections and to suppress colonization of the gut by pathogenic organisms colonized in gut, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and various conditions of diarrhea, hypocholesterolaemea, urogenital tract infection, atopic diseases, skin diseases, gastrointestinal well-being, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer (16,31,34,35).

Resection in Nonneoplastic Conditions

Terminal End Colostomy

Surgery in colorectal inflammatory bowel disease - the surgical management of colorectal Crohn's disease is similar to that in the small intestine (see Chapter 4) namely, surgical intervention is reserved for those in whom medical management has failed (i.e., minimal resection of the diseased segment) or who are suffering complications, e.g., obstruction, pericolic abscess, fistula, etc.

Crohns Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, U.S.A. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, collectively part of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are both diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that arise in genetically susceptible individuals. Both CD and ulcerative colitis, though clinically different entities, are thought to be part of a spectrum of diseases where environmental and immunologic factors determine the extent and severity of clinical manifestations. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 1. Loftus EV Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology 2004 126(6) 1504-1517. 2. Gilat T, Grossman A, Fireman Z, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease in Jews. In McConnell R, Rosen P, Langman M, et al., eds. The Genetics and Epidemiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Basel,...

Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome

Vulvar Vestibulitis Treatment

Genetic factors In one controlled study, Jeremias et al. (49) found that affected women have a high incidence of a genetic allele that is involved in the regulation of inflammation and is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g., ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease) (50,51). It is possible that women with this allele are genetically susceptible to the development of vestibulitis, but may only develop it after some injury to the vulvar vestibule, whether through repeated infections, local treatments, hormonal factors, early age at first intercourse, early age at first tampon use, and or difficulty with or pain during first tampon use (8,9,30). Although these findings need to be replicated, they lead to several possible explanations for the development of vulvar vestibulitis. For example, women with this particular gene profile may have an abnormality in the regulation of inflammation, which has recently been shown in vestibulitis sufferers (52-54). This would...

Gastrointestinal Specimens

Pathological mimics of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Pathol 1991 44 726-733 Snell RS. Clinical anatomy for medical students. 3rd edition. Boston Little, Brown and Company, 1986 Solcia E, Capella C, Kl ppel G. Tumors of the pancreas. Atlas of tumor pathology. 3rd series. Fascicle 20. Washington AFIP, 1997

Crosstalk Between Bacteria And Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Upon activation of TLR 4 by LPS, a series of events lead to the activation of ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 by a unique self-polyubiquitination reaction. TRAF6 then activates the TAK1 complex (54). This step leads to the phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the inhibitor kB kinase (IKK) complex (54,55). The IKK complex comprises two kinases, IKKa and IKKb, and one protein, NEMO. When activated, IKKb phosphorylates IkBa, triggering its polyubiquitination and degradation (56,57). In the unstimulated state, the IkBa interacts and traps NFkb in the cytosol. Degradation of IkBa releases the NFkb to translocate into the nucleus and to activate proinflammatory and prosurvival gene expression. Therefore, TLR 4 activates multiple signaling pathways which will eventually lead to the production of cytokines and other factors to protect the host against infection (58). The expression level of TLR 4 in the intestine of patients with inflammatory bowel disease was found...

Myeloproliferative Disorders

Apart from the ruddy complexion, specific head and neck manifestations are unusual. Epistaxis in addition to bleeding from other sites may occur in up to 40 of patients. Pyoderma gangrenosum is reported to occur with the MPD. This is a necrotizing skin ulceration that occurs most commonly on the limbs of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. It can also occur on the face. Manifestations of iron deficiency may include glossitis and cheilosis.

Differential Diagnosis

Multiple diseases can present with findings similar to those seen with Adamantiades-Behget's disease and should be considered when a patient presents with recurrent oral or genital ulcers, inflammatory eye disease, or other manifestations of vasculitis. Included in the differential diagnosis are systemic lupus erythematosus (Chapter 1), seronegative spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's or ulcerative colitis) (Chapter 20), herpes or other viral infections (Chapter 10), other forms of vasculitis (Chapter 8), and inflammatory skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris or pemphigoid lesions (Chapter 37). All patients presenting with oral and genital ulcerations should undergo testing for herpes simplex virus using culture or polymerase chain reaction methods, to ensure that viral infection is not present. aFindings applicable only in the absence of other clinical explanations (systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, seronegative spondyloarthropathies,...

Health Surveillance

Helicobacter was initially recognized as a pathogen in rodents in 1994.10 Several species of Helicobacter (H. hepaticus, H. bilis, and H. rodentium) are increasingly being recognized as a serious problem in mouse colonies because of their ability to induce hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rectal prolapse, and function as an intercurrent variable in biomedical research studies.11 Also, some lines of mice generally do not breed well or thrive when infected with one or more Helicobacter species. A recent report detected Helicobacter hepaticus in 11 different genetically altered mouse lines.12 Infection was associated with rectal prolapse and inflammatory bowel disease, and such animals would not be expected to reproduce optimally. Helicobacter hepaticus is apparently widespread in commercial mouse colonies and only a few large suppliers are currently certifying their mice to be free of certain Helicobacter spp. Helicobacter organisms are infectious and can easily be detected in...

Antiinflammatory And Analgesic

In vitro data has shown that nettle leaf extract (IDS 30) reduces the induction of primary T-cell responses and TNF-alpha in T-cell mediated diseases such as RA (Broer & Behnke 2002). Faecal IL-1 -beta and TNF-alpha concentrations were significantly reduced in mice with induced Crohn's disease treated with IDS 30 (Konrad et al 2005). Mice treated with nettle extract displayed fewer histological changes and general disease symptoms. The authors conclude that the effect may be due to a decrease in Th1 response and may constitute a new treatment option for prolonging remission in inflammatory bowel disease.

Clinical Presentation

Angiodysplasia usually presents with persistent occult bleeding or repeated small bleeds. In colonic ischaemia infarction there may be a history of arrhythmia or cardiac failure, and it may present acutely with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea or less acutely with stricturing and symptoms of obstruction. Infective conditions usually lead to diarrhoea, crampy abdominal pain and fever. A careful drug history should be obtained if pseudomembranous colitis is suspected. Inflammatory bowel disease may have an indolent presentation with lethargy, anorexia and weight loss. However, more characteristic symptoms of ulcerative colitis include bloody diarrhoea ( 10 stools day), urgency and abdominal pain. Peritonitis and systemic sepsis may occur with toxic megacolon and perforation. Colorectal Crohn's disease characteristically presents with diarrhoea. Obstruction due to stricturing may occur and fistulae leading to specific symptoms (e.g., colovesical - pneumaturia and recurrent urinary...

Portal Vein Thrombosis

Portal vein thrombosis can occur either as a complication of local inflammation or be a sigh of hypercoagulable states. Local factors associated with portal vein thrombosis include abdominal abscess, inflammatory bowel disease, or tumor compression. Portal vein thrombosis can also be a complication of surgery, especially splenectomy in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Like Budd-Chiari syndrome, portal vein thrombosis can also be a complication of hypercoagulable states including the unusual ones listed in Table 16.1.

Genetic Alterations of Colorectal Cancer

The molecular genetic alterations in colorectal carcinoma are among the best understood in human cancer and involve abnormalities in multiple dominant-acting oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes (Kinzler and Vogelstein, 1996 Fearon and Dang, 1999). Various pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis are evident in sporadic, familial, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasms. The somatic alterations in sporadic colo-

Gene Deficient Animals

In recent years, specific mouse strains have been frequently used in studies of colitis. Colitis in mice closely resembles human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are several specific inbred mouse strains that are most useful in this area as they are more likely to develop spontaneous colitis. Strains displaying a disrupted expression of Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and TGF-b have proven to be particularly useful in these studies and have contributed to a broader understanding of the role of the human GI microbiota in IBD. There are a number of different characteristics associated with animals that express irregular cytokine profiles. In mice that are deficient in IL-2, usually when 6-15 weeks old, inflammation occurs in the colon only (111). However, in IL-10 deficient mice, inflammation may also occur in the small intestine as well as the colon (112). TCRa deficient animals have developed inflammation in the caecum, colon, and rectum (113-115), whereas HLA-B27 rats develop...

Some success stories

In 2001 three papers reported on the association between the gene NOD2 and Crohn's disease (an inflammatory bowel disease), however, the paths of the research that led to these independent findings were quite different. The first (Hugot et al., 2001) followed the classic research paradigm of genome-wide linkage study (which identified the pericen-tromeric region of chromosome 16), fine mapping study (where more microsatellite markers are genotyped in the linkage region) and association study. This study identified three causal mutations, a single base-pair insertion (3020Cins) and two missense variants. In contrast, the other studies (Hampe etal., 2001 Ogura etal., 2001) selected the NOD2 gene as a candidate gene based on position (within the reported linkage region), structural homology to plant apoptosis regulatory and disease resistance genes and known function of NOD proteins in recognizing bacterial components. Both studies identified the single base-pair insertion and reported...


For a number of years, colonoscopy has been considered the appropriate screening test for high-risk subjects, such as persons with inflammatory bowel disease, a personal history of adenomas or invasive adenocarcinoma, or a family history of colorectal cancer. The current guidelines of the American Cancer Society and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network suggest that colonoscopy is the preferred tool for such persons. Subjects with a positive family history have a high prevalence of lesions beyond the reach of the flexible sigmoidoscope. As noted above, in a head-to-head prospective comparison of colonoscopy and barium enema in subjects with previous adenomas, colonoscopy was more sensitive for the detection of adenomas larger than 1 cm (Winawer et al, 2000).


One of the recognized risk factors for colon cancer is the Western diet high in saturated fat but low in fiber and antioxidants. The protective effects of fiber and calcium have turned out to be not as important as the protective effects of antioxidants. Physical inactivity is a stronger risk factor than obesity in colon cancer. Alcohol use increases colon cancer risk by about twofold, but smoking does not seem to be linked to colon cancer. Patients with a long-standing history of inflammatory bowel disease have an incremental risk of developing colon cancer of 9 at 10 years, 20 at 20 years, and more than 35 at 30 years. Patients with pancolitis are at higher risk than those with segmental colitis. Patients with a history of ulcerative colitis of more than 8 years' duration should undergo surveillance colonoscopy every 6 to 12 months for the detection of dysplastic changes or cancerous polyps, which may be technically challenging owing to the infil-trative nature of the cancer....


Hawthorn fruit has been shown to be protective in experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease in mice with restoration of body weight and colon length, increased haemoglobin count, reduced signs of inflammation, such as infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions, along with improved survival (Fujisawa et al 2005).


Although preliminary studies are promising, large placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded clinical trials are needed to clarify the role of probiotic bacteria in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel Detailed strain characterization is also required for all potential probiotic strains before the use of combinations can be recommended. The potential exists for synergistic or antagonistic effects amongst bacterial strains and this requires further study. Finally, disease-specific probiotic organisms designed to target particular patients, (the designer probiotic ), may become a possibility as we increase our understanding of molecular mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory effects of individual probiotics. What is already clear, is that there will be an increasing role for bacteria or bacterial products in a therapeutic setting along with conventional treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. The concept of a food influencing...


Comments Warnings clindamycin is contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or history of antibiotic-induced colitis. Caution with reduced hepatic or renal function and in asthma. No concurrent administration of antiperistaltics. In cases of persistent diarrhea during treatment with clindamycin, discontinue clin-damycin and initiate therapy with vancomycin, as this may be due to pseudomem-branous colitis.

Specimen Photography

An accurate macroscopic description of a gross specimen is often vital in making the correct diagnosis (e.g., the pattern of involvement in inflammatory bowel disease) and in accurately staging a malignant tumour. With the decline of the autopsy and the controversy surrounding organ retention, macroscopic specimen photographs also play an important role in undergraduate teaching, and may be correlated with radiological images in today's integrated courses. Macroscopic specimen photography has also been used to audit the quality of mesorectal excision in rectal cancers and it is an important communication medium in multidisciplinarian team meetings. Another factor that may contribute to its increasing use includes participation of BMSs in specimen dissection and in the selection of tissue for histology specimen dissection is inherently destructive and sequential pictures can be used to record key features of the specimen.

Helicobacter spp

Helicobacter spp. have been isolated from nearly all species of rodents,32 but clinical significance has only been documented in relation to a few of these. H. hepaticus and maybe also H. bilis cause chronic hepatitis in mice.32 H. hepaticus is probably also responsible for liver tumors in mice.32 Susceptibility to disease seems to be genetically dependent, e.g., A JCr33 and B6C3F34 mice seem to be highly susceptible, while C57BL33 mice seem to be resistant. H. cholecystus causes hepatitis and pancreatitis in hamsters. Infection with Helicobacter spp. is probably rather common in rodent colonies.32,35 A range of transgenic mice as well as some rats suffer from a syndrome consisting of gastric ulcers, colitis, proctitis, and rectal prolapses (Figure 11.3), which in its features resembles several aspects of human inflammatory bowel disease. The syndrome is primarily observed in strains in which transgenesis has disrupted the normal mucosal homeostasis by features such as cytokine...

How To Win Your War Against Irritable Bowel Syndrome

How To Win Your War Against Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome Ruining Your Life? Have You Stopped Living The Way You Used To? Do You Feel Life Has Turned It's Back On You? Yes, It's True IBS Can Be A Grueling, Debilitating, Experience That Makes Living Truly A Nightmare Finally Learn Some Little-Known, But Highly Effective Ways To Relieve Irritable Bowel Syndrome Put An End To This Unbearable Pain, And Get Back To Enjoying The Beauty Of Life Once Again You Deserve It

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