References

Amiral J, Bridey F, Dreyfus M, Vissac AM, Fressinaud E, Meyer D. Identification of PF4 as a target for antibodies generated in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: development of a diagnostic test [abstr]. Thromb Haemost 1991; 65(suppl):865. Greinacher A, Michels I, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin induced platelet activation (HIPA) test: a rapid and sensitive tool for diagnosing heparin associated thrombocytopenia (HAT) and selecting a compatible heparin [abstr]. Thromb Haemost 1991; 65(suppl):795. Rhodes GR, Dixon RH, Silver D. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia with thrombotic and hemorrhagic manifestations. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1973; 136:409-416. Rhodes GR, Dixon RH, Silver D. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: eight cases with thrombotic-hemorrhagic complications. Ann Surg 1977; 186:752-758. Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Determinants of platelet donor variability in diagnostic testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [abstr]. Thromb Haemost 1991; 65(suppl):1036. World Health Organization. Seventh report of the WHO Expert Committee. The use of essential drugs. WHO Technical Report Series. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997:37.

Introduction Samuel Z. Goldhaber v Preface to the Fourth Edition vii Preface to the Third Edition ix Preface to the Second Edition xi Preface to the First Edition xiii Contributors xix

1. History of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 1

Theodore E. Warkentin

2. Clinical Picture of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 21

Theodore E. Warkentin

3. Frequency of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 67 David H. Lee and Theodore E. Warkentin

4. Nonimmune Heparin-Platelet Interactions: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 117 McDonald K. Horne III

5. Role of Heparin-Dependent Antigens in Immune Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 131

Jean Amiral and Anne Marie Vissac

6. Molecular Immunopathogenesis of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 149 Gian Paolo Visentin, Chao Yan Liu, and Richard H. Aster

7. Role of Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Pathogenesis of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 167

Susanne Alban and Andreas Greinacher

8. Platelet and Leukocyte Fcg Receptors in Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 187

Gregory A. Denomme

9. Immune Vascular Injury in Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 209 Gowthami M. Arepally, Mortimer Poncz, and Douglas B. Cines

10. Laboratory Testing for Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 227

Theodore E. Warkentin and Andreas Greinacher

11. Pseudo-Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 261 Theodore E. Warkentin

12. Treatment of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: An Overview 283 Andreas Greinacher and Theodore E. Warkentin

13. Danaparoid for the Treatment of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 319 Beng Hock Chong and Harry N. Magnani

14. Lepirudin for the Treatment of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 345

Andreas Greinacher

15. Argatroban Therapy in Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 379 Bruce E. Lewis and Marcie J. Hursting

16. Bivalirudin for the Treatment of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 409 John R. Bartholomew

17. Emerging Anticoagulants and Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: Indirect and Direct Factor Xa Inhibitors and Oral Thrombin Inhibitors 441

James E. Bradner and John W. Eikelboom

18. Hemodialysis in Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia 463

Karl-Georg Fischer

19. Management of Intraoperative Anticoagulation in Patients with Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery 487 Andreas Koster, Bernd Potzsch, and Katharina Madlener

20. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Children 503

Anne F. Klenner and Andreas Greinacher

21. A Clinician's Perspective on Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: Paradoxes, Myths, and Realities 519

Lawrence Rice

Appendices 529

1 Ten Clinical "Rules" for Diagnosing HIT 529

2 Estimating the Pretest Probability of HIT: The Four T's 531

3 Recommendations for Platelet Count Monitoring for HIT 532

4 Treatment Recommendations 533

5 Danaparoid Dosing Schedules in HIT Patients 537

6 Dosing Schedules for Lepirudin Treatment of Patients with HIT 538

7 Initial Lepirudin Dosing in Renal Dysfunction 539

8 Dosing Schedules for Argatroban Treatment of Patients with HIT (Approved Indications) 540

9 Dosing Schedule for Bivalirudin Treatment of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 541

10 Timelines of an Episode of HIT 542

11 Integrated Diagnostic and Treatment Approach for Suspected HIT 543

12 Six Treatment Principles of HIT 544

Index 545

Susanne Alban Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany

Jean Amiral Hyphen Biomed Research, Zac Neuville-Université, Neuville-Sur-Oise, France

Gowthami M. Arepally Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Richard H. Aster Medical College of Wisconsin and Blood Research Institute, The Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

John R. Bartholomew Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

James E. Bradner Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Beng Hock Chong St. George Hospital and University of New South Wales, Kogarah, New South Wales, Australia

Douglas B. Cines University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Gregory A. Denomme University of Toronto, Canadian Blood Services and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

John W. Eikelboom Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Karl-Georg Fischer University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Andreas Greinacher Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University-Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

McDonald K. Horne III Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.

Marcie J. Hursting Clinical Science Consulting, Austin, Texas, U.S.A.

Anne F. Klenner Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University-Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Andreas Koster Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany

David H. Lee Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Bruce E. Lewis Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, and Catholic Health Partners, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Chao Yan Liu University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.

Katharina Madlener Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim, Germany

Harry N. Magnani Medical Consultant, Oss, The Netherlands

Mortimer Poncz University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Bernd Pötzsch Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Lawrence Rice The Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.

Gian Paolo Visentin University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.

Anne Marie Vissac Hyphen Biomed Research, Zac Neuville-Université, Neuville-Sur-Oise, France

Theodore E. Warkentin Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, and Hamilton Regional Laboratory Medicine Program, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

^ History of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

Theodore E. Warkentin

Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, and Hamilton Regional Laboratory Medicine Program, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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