References

Agnelli G, Iorio A, De Angelis V, Nenci GG. Dermatan sulphate in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [letter]. Lancet 344:1295-1296,1994.

Almeida JI, Coats R, Liem TK, Silver D. Reduced morbidity and mortality rates of the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Vasc Surg 27:309-316,1998.

Arepally GM, Mayer IM. Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocyto-penia stimulate monocytic cells to express cells to express tissue factor and secrete interleukin-8. Blood 98:1252-1254, 2001.

Arnold RJ, Kim R, Tang B. The cost-effectiveness of argatroban treatment in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: the effect of early versus delayed treatment. Cardiol Rev 14:7-13, 2006.

Babcock RB, Dumper CW, Scharfman WB. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 295:237-241,1976.

Bartholomew JR, Hursting MJ. Transitioning from argatroban to warfarin in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: an analysis of outcomes in patients with elevated international normalized ratio (INR). J Thromb Thrombolysis 19:183-188, 2005.

Bauriedel G, Gerbig H, Riess H, Samtleben W, Steinbeck G. Heparin-induzierte Thrombozytopenie. Weiterbehandlung mit niedermolekularem Heparin. Munch Med Wochenschr 8:133-134, 1988.

Begelman SM, Hursting MJ, Aghababian RB, McCollum D. Heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia from venous thromboembolism treatment. J Intern Med 258:563-572, 2006.

Bell WR Jr. Defibrinogenating enzymes. Drugs 54(suppl 3):18-31, 1997.

Bennett-Guerrero E, Slaughter TF, White WD, Welsby IJ, Greenberg CS, El-Moalem H, Ortel TL. Preoperative anti-PF4/heparin antibody level predicts adverse outcome after cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 130:1567-1572, 2005.

Bounameaux H, de Moerloose P, Schneider PA, Leuenberger A, Krähenbühl B, Bouvier CA. Thrombose arterielle femorale associee a une thrombopenie induit par l'heparin. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 116:1576-1579, 1986.

Bouvier JL, Lefevre P, Villain P, Elias A, Durand JM, Juhan I, Serradimigni A. Treatment of serious heparin-induced thrombocytopenia by plasma exchange: report on 4 cases. Thromb Res 51:335-336,1988.

Brace LD, Fareed J. Heparin-induced platelet aggregation. II. Dose/response relationships for two low molecular weight heparin fractions (CY 216 and CY 222). Thromb Res 59:1-14, 1990.

Brady J, Riccio JA, Yumen OH, Makary AZ, Greenwood SM. Plasmapheresis: a therapeutic option in the management of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia with thrombosis. Am J Clin Pathol 96:394-397,1991.

British Committee for Standards in Haematology, Blood Transfusion Task Force. Guidelines for the use of platelet transfusions. Br J Haematol 122:10-23, 2003.

Burgess JK, Chong BH. The platelet proaggregating and potentiating effects of unfrac-tionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin and heparinoid in intensive care patients and healthy controls. Eur J Haematol 58:279-285,1997.

Cadroy Y, Amiral J, Raynaud H, Brunei P, Mazaleyrat A, Sauer M, Sie P. Evolution of antibodies anti-PF4/heparin in a patient with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia reexposed to heparin [letter]. Thromb Haemost 72:783-784,1994.

Calhoun BC, Hesser JW. Heparin-associated antibody with pregnancy: discussion of two cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:964-966,1987.

Chong BH, Ismail F, Cade J, Gallus AS, Gordon S, Chesterman CN. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: studies with a new low molecular weight heparinoid, Org 10172. Blood 73:1592-1596, 1989.

Chong BH, Murray B, Berndt MC, Dunlop LC, Brighton T, Chesterman CN. Plasma P-selectin is increased in thrombotic consumptive platelet disorders. Blood 83: 1535-1541, 1994.

Chong BH, Gallus AS, Cade JF, Magnani H, Manoharan A, Oldmeadow M, Arthur C, Rickard K, Gallo J, Lloyd J, Seshadri P, Chesterman CN. Prospective randomised open-label comparison of danaparoid with dextran 70 in the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis. A clinical outcome study. Thromb Haemost 86:1170-1175, 2001.

Cimo PL, Moake JL, Weinger RS, Ben-Menachem Y, Khalil KG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: association with a platelet aggregating factor and arterial thromboses. Am J Hematol 6:125-133, 1979.

Cines DB, Tomaski A, Tannenbaum S. Immune endothelial-cell injury in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 316:581-589, 1987.

Clifton GD, Smith MD. Thrombolytic therapy in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia with thrombosis. Clin Pharm 5:597-601, 1986.

Cohen JI, Cooper MR, Greenberg CS. Streptokinase therapy of pulmonary emboli with heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Arch Intern Med 145:1725-1726,1985.

Cole CW, Fournier LM, Bormanis J. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: optimal therapy with ancrod. Can J Surg 33:207-210,1990.

Contreras M. The appropriate use of platelets: an update from the Edinburgh Consensus Conference. Br J Haematol 101(suppl 1):10-12, 1998.

Copplestone A, Oscier DG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. Br J Haematol 65:248, 1987.

Cummings JM, Mason TJ, Chomka EV, Pouget JM. Fibrinolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction in the heparin thrombosis syndrome. Am Heart J 112:407-409, 1986.

Danhof M, de Boer A, Magnani HN, Stiekema JCJ. Pharmacokinetic considerations on Orgaran (Org 10172) therapy. Hemostasis 22:73-84, 1992.

Demers C, Ginsberg JS, Brill-Edwards P, Panju A, Warkentin TE, Anderson DR, Turner C, Kelton JG. Rapid anticoagulation using ancrod for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 78:2194-2197,1991.

Dieck JA, Rizo-Patron C, Unisa A, Mathur V, Massumi GA. A new manifestation and treatment alternative for heparin-induced thrombosis. Chest 98:1524-1526, 1990.

Eriksson BI, Wille-Jorgensen P, Kalebo P, Mouret P, Rosencher N, Bosch P, Baur M, Ekman S, Bach D, Lindbratt S, Close P. A comparison of recombinant hirudin with a low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent thromboembolic complications after total hip replacement. N Engl J Med 337:1329-1335,1997.

Farner B, Eichler P, Kroll H, Greinacher A. A comparison of danaparoid and lepirudin in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 85:950-957, 2001

Fiessinger JN, Aiach M, Rocanto M, Debure C, Gaux JC. Critical ischemia during heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Treatment by intra-arterial streptokinase. Thromb Res 33:235-238, 1984.

Frame JN, Mulvey KP, Phares JC, Anderson MJ. Correction of severe heparin-associated thrombocytopenia with intravenous immunoglobulin. Ann Intern Med 111:946-947, 1989.

Furlan A, Vianello F, Clementi M, Prandoni P. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy: successful treatment with lepirudin. A case report. Haematologica 91(8 suppl):ECR40, 2006.

Gosselin RC, Dager WE, King JH, Janatpour KA, Mahackian KA, Larkin EC, Owings JT. Effect of direct thrombin inhibitors, bivalirudin, lepirudin, and argatroban, on prothrombin time and INR values. Am J Clin Pathol 121:593-599, 2004.

Gouault-Heilmann M, Huet Y, Adnot S, Contant G, Bonnet F, Intrator L, Payen D, Levent M. Low molecular weight heparin fractions as an alternative therapy in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Haemostasis 17:134-140,1987.

Grau E, Linares M, Olaso MA, Ruvira J, Sanchis J. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia—response to intravenous immunoglobulin in vivo and in vitro. Am J Hematol 39:312, 1992.

Gray T, Wallis DE, Hursting MJ, Katz E, Lewis BE. Argatroban therapy for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in acutely ill patients. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2007; in press.

Greinacher A. Antigen generation in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the non-immunologic type and the immunologic type are closely linked in their pathogen-esis. Semin Thromb Hemost 21:106-116, 1995.

Greinacher A, Michels I, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the antibody is not heparin-specific. Thromb Haemost 67:545-549,1992.

Greinacher A, Eckhardt T, Mussmann J, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Pregnancy complicated by heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: management by a prospectively in vitro selected heparinoid (Org 10172). Thromb Res 71:123-126, 1993a.

Greinacher A, Michels I, Liebenhoff U, Presek P, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-asso-ciated thrombocytopenia: immune complexes are attached to the platelet membrane by the negative charge of highly sulfated oligosaccharides. Br J Haematol 84: 711-716,1993b.

Greinacher A, Liebenhoff U, Kiefel V, Presek P, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the effects of various intravenous IgG preparations on antibody mediated platelet activation—a possible new indication for high dose i.v. IgG. Thromb Haemost 71:641-645,1994a.

Greinacher A, Poetzsch B, Amiral J, Dummel V, Eichner A, Mueller-Eckhard C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: isolation of the antibody and characterization of a multimolecular PF4-heparin complex as the major antigen. Thromb Haemost 71:247-251,1994b.

Greinacher A, Völpel H, Janssens U, Hach-Wunderle V, Kemkes-Matthes B, Eichler P, Mueller-Velten HG, Pötzsch B. Recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) provides safe and effective anticoagulation in patients with the immunologic type of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study. Circulation 99:73-80, 1999a.

Greinacher A, Janssens U, Berg G, Böck M, Kwasny H, Kemkes-Matthes B, Eichler P, Völpel H, Pötzsch B, Luz M. Lepirudin (recombinant hirudin) for parenteral anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Circulation 100:587-593, 1999b.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Kwasny H, Luz H. Heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia with thromboembolic complications: meta-analysis of two prospective trials to assess the value of parenteral treatment with lepirudin and its therapeutic aPTT range. Blood 96:846-851, 2000.

Greinacher A, Lubenow N, Eichler P. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions associated with lepirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Circulation 108:2062-2065, 2003.

Greinacher A, Farner B, Kroll H, Kohlmann T, Warkentin TE, Eichler P. Clinical features of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia including risk factors for thrombosis. A retrospective analysis of 408 patients. J Thromb Haemost 94:132-135, 2005.

Greinacher A, Juhl D, Strobel V, Wessel A, Lubenow N, Selleng K, Eichler P, Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study on the incidence, platelet-activating capacity, and clinical significance of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA classes. J Thromb Haemost, 2007; in press.

Gruel Y, Lang M, Darnige L, Pacouret G, Dreyfus X, Leroy J, Charbonnier B. Fatal effect of re-exposure to heparin after previous heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Lancet 336:1077-1078, 1990.

Gruel Y, Lermusiaux P, Lang M, Darnige L, Rupin A, Delahousse B, Guilmot JL, Leroy J. Usefulness of antiplatelet drugs in the management of heparin-associated throm-bocytopenia and thrombosis. Ann Vasc Surg 5:552-555, 1991.

Gupta AK, Kovacs MJ, Sauder DN. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmac-other 32:55-59, 1998.

Guzzi LM, McCollum DA, Hursting MJ. Effect of renal function on argatroban therapy in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Thrombolys 22:169-176, 2006.

Hall AV, Clark WF, Parbtani A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in renal failure. Clin Nephrol 38:86-89, 1992.

Harenberg J. Treatment of a woman with lupus and thromboembolism and cutaneous intolerance to heparins using fondaparinux during pregnancy. Thromb Res 119:385-388, 2006.

Harrison L, Johnston M, Massicotte MP, Crowther M, Moffat K, Hirsh J. Comparison of 5-mg and 10-mg loading doses in initiation of warfarin therapy. Ann Intern Med 126:133-136, 1997.

Henny CHP, ten Cate H, ten Cate JW, Prummel MF, Peters M, Büller HR. Thrombosis prophylaxis in an AT III deficient pregnant women: application of a low molecular weight heparinoid. Thromb Haemost 55:301, 1986.

Hérault JP, Lale A, Savi P, Pflieger AM, Herbert JM. In vitro inhibition of heparin-induced platelet aggregation in plasma from patients with HIT by SR 121566, a newly developed Gp IIb/IIIa antagonist. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 8:206-207, 1997.

Hérault JP, Peyrou V, Savi P, Bernat A, Herbert JM. Effect of SR121566A, a potent GP IIb-IIIa antagonist on platelet-mediated thrombin generation in vitro and in vivo. Thromb Haemost 79:383-388, 1998.

Herbert JM, Savi P, Jeske WP, Walenga JM. Effect of SR 121566A, a potent GP IIb-Illa antagonist, on the HIT serum/heparin-induced platelet mediated activation of human endothelial cells. Thromb Haemost 80:326-331, 1998.

Hirsh J, Warkentin TE, Shaughnessy SG, Anand SS, Halperin JL, Raschke R, Granger C, Ohman EM, Dalen JE. Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin. Mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, dosing, monitoring, efficacy, and safety. Chest 119(suppl): 64S-94S, 2001.

Horellou MH, Conard J, Lecrubier C, Samama M, Roque-D'Orbcastel O, de Fenoyl O, Di Maria G, Bernadou A. Persistent heparin-induced thrombocytopenia despite therapy with low molecular weight heparin. Thromb Haemost 51:134, 1984.

Huhle G, Geberth M, Hoffmann U, Heene DL, Harenberg J. Management of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia in pregnancy with subcutaneous r-hirudin. Gynecol Obstet Invest 49:67-69, 2000.

Hursting MJ, Lewis BE, Macfarlane DE. Transitioning from argatroban to warfarin therapy in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 11: 279-287, 2005.

Imberti D, Verso M, Silvestrini E, Taliani MR, Agnelli G. Successful treatment with dermatan sulphate in six patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and acute venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Haemost 1:2696-2697, 2003.

Jagadeeswaran P, Liu YC, Eddy CA. Effects of hirudin (thrombin specific inhibitor) in zebrafish embryos: a developmental role for thrombin. Blood Cells Mol Dis 23: 410-414, 1997.

Jang IK, Hursting MJ, McCollum D. Argatroban therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Cardiology 2007; in press.

Janson PA, Moake JL, Garpinito C. Aspirin prevents heparin-induced platelet aggregation in vivo. Br J Haematol 53:166-168, 1983.

Jouanny P, Jeandel C, Laurain MC, Penin F, Cuny G. Thrombopenie a l'heparine et filtre cave. Difficultes du traitement. J Mal Vasc 18:320-322, 1993.

Juhl D, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Strobel U, Wessel A, Greinacher A. Incidence and clinical significance of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA class in 755 consecutive patient samples referred for diagnostic testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol 76:420-426, 2006.

Kappa JR, Horn MK III, Fisher CA, Cottrell ED, Ellison A, Addonizio VP Jr. Efficacy of iloprost (ZK36374) versus aspirin in preventing heparin-induced platelet activation during cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 97:405-413, 1987.

Kappa JR, Fisher CA, Addonizio VP. Heparin-induced platelet activation: the role of thromboxane A2 synthesis and the extent of granule release in two patients. J Vasc Surg 9:574-579,1989.

Kelton JG, Sheridan D, Santos A, Smith J, Steeves K, Smith C, Brown C, Murphy WG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: laboratory studies. Blood 72:925-930, 1988.

Keularts IMLW, Beguin S, de Zwaan C, Hemker HC. Treatment with a GPIIb/III antagonist inhibits thrombin generation in platelet rich plasma from patients. Thromb Haemost 80:370-371, 1998.

Kiefel V. Differential diagnosis of acute thrombocytopenia. In: Warkentin TE, Greinacher, eds. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia, 3rd edn. New York: Marcel Dekker, 25-52, 2004.

Kirchmaier CM, Bender N. Heparin-induzierte Thrombozytopenie mit arterieller und venoser Thrombose. Inn Med 15:174-178,1988.

Kleinschmidt S, Ziegenfuss T, Seyfert UT, Greinacher A. Septisch toxisches Herz Kreislauf Versagen als Folge einer Heparin-induzierten Thrombozytopenie mit "White Clot Syndrome". Anaesthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 28: 58-60,1993.

Klenner AF, Lubenow N, Raschke R, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia in children: 12 new cases and review of the literature. Thromb Haemost 91: 719-724, 2004.

Krueger SK, Andreas E, Weinand E. Thrombolysis in heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia with thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 103:159, 1985.

Lagrange F, Vergnes C, Bran JL, Paolucci F, Nadal T, Leng JJ, Saux MC, Banwarth B. Absence of placental transfer of pentasaccharide (fondaparinux, Arixtra) in the dually perfused human cotyledon in vitro. Thromb Haemost 87:831-835, 2002.

LaMonte MP, Brown PM, Hursting MJ. Stroke in patients with heparin-induced throm-bocytopenia and the effect of argatroban therapy. Crit Care Med 32:976-980, 2004.

Laster JL, Elfrink R, Silver D. Reexposure to heparin of patients with heparin-associated antibodies. J Vasc Surg 9:677-681,1989.

Leroy J, Leclerc MH, Delahousse B, Guerois C, Foloppe P, Gruel Y, Toulemonde F. Treatment of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis with low molecular weight heparin (CY 216). Semin Thromb Hemost 11:326-329,1985.

Levine RL, Hursting MJ, McCollum D. Argatroban therapy in heparin-induced throm-bocytopenia with hepatic dysfunction. Chest 129:1167-1175, 2006.

Lewis BE, Wallis DE, Berkowitz SD, Matthai WH, Fareed J, Walenga JM, Bartholomew J, Sham R, Lerner RG, Zeigler ZR, Rustagi PK, Jang IK, Rifkin SD, Moran J, Hursting MJ, Kelton JG, for the ARG-911 Study Investigators. Circulation 103: 1838-1843, 2001.

Lewis BE, Wallis DE, Leya F, Hursting MJ, Kelton JG. Argatroban anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Arch Intern Med 163:1849-1856, 2003.

Lewis BE, Wallis DE, Hursting MJ, Levine RL, Leya F. Effects of argatroban therapy, demographic variables, and platelet count on thrombotic risks in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Chest 129:1407-1416, 2006.

Lindhoff-Last E, Piechottka GP, Rabe F, Bauersachs R. Hirudin determination in plasma can be strongly influenced by the prothrombin level. Thromb Res 100:55-60, 2000.

Lindhoff-Last E, Magnani HN, Kreutzenbeck HJ. Treatment of 51 pregnancies with danaparoid because of heparin intolerance. Thromb Haemost 93:63-69, 2005.

Lo GK, Juhl D, Warkentin TE, Sigouin CS, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 T's) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two clinical settings. J Thromb Haemost 4:759-765, 2006.

Lubenow N, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Recommendations for optimal use of recombinant hirudin. BioDrugs 14:109-125, 2000.

Lubenow N, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Results of a large drug monitoring program confirms the safety and efficacy of Refludan (lepirudin) in patients with immunemediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [abstr]. Blood 100(suppl 1):502a, 2002a.

Lubenow N, Kempf R, Eichner A, Eichler P, Carlsson LE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: temporal pattern of thrombocytopenia in relation to initial use or reexposure to heparin. Chest 122:37-42, 2002b.

Lubenow N, Eichler P, Lietz T, Farner B, Greinacher A. Lepirudin for prophylaxis of thrombosis in patients with acute isolated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: an analysis of 3 prospective studies. Blood 104:3072-3077, 2004.

Lubenow N, Eichler P, Lietz T, Greinacher A, and the HIT Investigators Group. Lepirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia—results of the third prospective study (HAT-3) and a combined analysis of HAT-1, HAT-2, and HAT-3. J Thromb Haemost 3:2428-2436, 2005.

Lubenow N, Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, Wessel A, Sloane DA, Krahn EL, Magnani HN. Results of a systematic evaluation of treatment outcomes for heparin-induced throm-bocytopenia in patients receiving danaparoid, ancrod, and/or coumarin explain the rapid shift in clinical practice during the 1990s. Thromb Res 117:507-515, 2006.

Magnani HN. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT): an overview of 230 patients treated with Orgaran (Org 10172). Thromb Haemost 70:554-561,1993.

Magnani HN. Orgaran (danaparoid sodium) use in the syndrome of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Platelets 8:74-81, 1997.

Magnani HN, Gallus A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). A report of 1,478 clinical outcomes of patients treated with danaparoid (Orgaran) from 1982 to mid-2004. Thromb Haemost 95:967-981, 2006.

Mak KH, Kottke-Marchant K, Brooks LM, Topol EJ. In vitro efficacy of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist in blocking platelet function in plasma of patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 80:989-993, 1998.

Makhoul RG, Greenberg CS, McCann RL. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: a serious clinical problem and potential solution. J Vasc Surg 4:522-528, 1986.

Makhoul RG, McCann RL, Austin EH, Greenberg CS, Lowe JE. Management of patients with heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis requiring cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 43:617-621, 1987.

Manzano L, Yebra M, Vargas JA, Barbolla L, Alvarez-Mon M. Plasmapheresis in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis [letter]. Stroke 21:1236, 1990.

Markwardt F, Fink G, Kaiser B, Klöcking HP, Nowak G, Richter M, Stürzebecher J. Pharmacological survey of recombinant hirudin. Pharmazie 43:202-207, 1988.

Mascelli MA, Deliargyris EN, Damaraju LV, Barnathan ES, Califf RM, Simoons ML, Sane DC. Antibodies to platelet factor 4/heparin are associated with elevated endothelial cell activation markers in patients with acute coronary ischemic syndromes. J Thromb Thrombolysis 18:171-175, 2004a.

Mascelli MA, Deliargyris EN, Damaraju LV, Barnathan ES, Sane DC. Role of anti-PF4/ heparin antibodies in recurrent thrombotic events after coronary syndromes. Semin Thromb Hemost 30:347-350, 2004b.

Matthai WH Jr, Hursting MJ, Lewis BE, Kelton JG. Argatroban anticoagulation in patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res 116: 121-126, 2005.

Mattioli AV, Bonetti L, Sternieri S, Mattioli G. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with unfractionated heparin: prevalence of thrombosis in a 1 year follow-up. Ital Heart J 1:39-42, 2000.

Mclntyre K. Medicolegal implications of the Consensus Conference. Chest 119(suppl):337S-343S, 2001.

McIntyre KM, Warkentin TE. Legal aspects of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: U.S. perspectives. In: Warkentin TE, Greinacher, eds. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytope-nia, 3rd edn. New York: Marcel Dekker, 573-585, 2004.

Mehta DP, Yoder EL, Appel J, Bergsman KL. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: reversal with streptokinase. A case report and review of literature. Am J Hematol 36:275-279, 1991.

Meytes D, Ayalon H, Virag I, Weisbort Y, Zakut H. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia and recurrent thrombosis in pregnancy. A case report. J Reprod Med 31: 993-996, 1986.

Nand S, Robinson JA. Plasmapheresis in the management of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia with thrombosis. Am J Hematol 28:204-206, 1988.

Nurden AT, Laroche-Traineau J, Jallu V, Broult J, Durrieu C, Besse P, Brossel C, Hourdille P. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: observation of the nature of the antibody activities and on the use of gammaglobulin concentrates in a patient with thrombotic complications [abstr]. Thromb Haemost 65:796, 1991.

Olbrich K, Wiersbitzky M, Wacke W, Eichler P, Zinke H, Schwock M, Mox B, Kraatz G, Motz W, Greinacher A. Atypical heparin-induced thrombocytopenia complicated by intracardiac thrombus, effectively treated with ultra-low-dose rt-PA lysis and recombinant hirudin (lepirudin). Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 9:273-277, 1998.

Olinger GN, Hussey CV, Olive JA, Malik MI. Cardiopulmonary bypass for patients with previously documented heparin-induced platelet aggregation. J Thorac Cardio-vasc Surg 87:673-677, 1984.

Ortel TL, Chong BH. New treatment options for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Semin Hematol 35:26-34, 1998.

Pedicord DL, Thomas BE, Mousa SA, Dicker IB. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists inhibit the development of platelet procoagulant activity. Thromb Res 90:247-258, 1998.

Pena de la Vega L, Miller RS, Benda MM, Grill DE, Johnson MG, McCarthy JT, McBane RD II. Association of heparin-dependent antibodies and adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients: a population-based study. J Lab Clin Med 80:995-1000, 2005.

Polgar J, Eichler P, Greinacher A, Clemetson KJ. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ADP receptor play a major role in platelet activation/aggregation induced by sera from heparin-induced thrombocytopenia patients. Blood 91:549-554, 1998.

Pötzsch B, Klövekorn WP, Madlener K. Use of heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [letter]. N Engl J Med 343:515, 2000.

Poullin P, Pietri P, Lefevre P. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis: successful treatment with plasma exchange [letter]. Br J Haematol 102:630-631, 1998.

Pouplard C, Iochmann S, Renard B, Herault O, Colombat P, Amiral J, Gruel Y. Induction of monocyte tissue factor expression by antibodies to heparin-platelet factor 4 complexes developed in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 97:3300-3302, 2001.

Prechel MM, McDonald MK, Jeske WP, Messmore HL, Walenga JM. Activation of platelets by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies in the serotonin release assay is not dependent on the presence of heparin. J Thromb Haemost 3:2168-2175, 2005.

Prull A, Nechwatal R, Riedel H, Mäurer W. Therapie des heparin-induzierten throm-bose-thrombozytopenie syndroms mit immunglobulinen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 117:1838-1842, 1992.

Quinones-Baldrich WJ, Baker JD, Busuttil RW, Machleder HI, Moore WS. Intraoperative infusion of lytic drug for thrombotic complications of revascularisation. J Vasc Surg 10:408-417,1989.

Ramakrishna R, Manoharan A, Kwan YL, Kyle PW. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia: cross-reactivity between standard heparin, low molecular weight heparin, dalteparin (Fragmin) and heparinoid, danaparoid (Orgaran). Br J Haematol 91: 736-738, 1995.

Ranze O, Eichner A, Lubenow N, Kempf R, Greinacher A. The use of low-molecular-weight heparins in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT): a cohort study [abstr]. Ann Hematol 79(suppl 1):P198, 2000.

Reddy BV, Grossman GJ, Trevino SA, Hursting MJ, Murray PT. Argatroban anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia requiring renal replacement therapy. Ann Pharmacol 39:1601-1605, 2005.

Reininger CB, Greinacher A, Graf J, Lasser R, Steckmeier B, Schweiberer L. Platelets of patients with peripheral arterial disease are hypersensitive to heparin. Thromb Res 81:641-649, 1996.

Reuter HD. Niedermolekulares heparin in der therapie der heparininduzierten throm-bozytopenie. Med Klin 82:115-118, 1987.

Roussi JH, Houboyan LL, Goguel AF. Use of low-molecular-weight heparin in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombotic complications. Lancet 1:1183, 1984.

Salzman EW, Rosenberg RD, Smith MH, Lindon JN, Favreau L. Effect of heparin and heparin fractions on platelet aggregation. J Clin Invest 65:64-73, 1980.

Savi P, Chong BH, Greinacher A, Gruel Y, Kelton JG, Warkentin TE, Eichler P, Meuleman D, Petitou M, Herault JP, Cariou R, Herbert JM. Effect of fondaparinux on platelet activation in the presence of heparin-dependent antibodies: a blinded comparative multicenter study with unfractionated heparin. Blood 105:139-144, 2005.

Schiffman H, Unterhalt M, Harms K, Figulla HR, Völpel H, Greinacher A. Erfolgreiche behandlung einer heparin-induzierten thrombocytopenie typ II im kindesalter mit rekombinantem hirudin. Monat Kinderheilkd 145:606-612, 1997.

Selleng K, Selleng S, Raschke R, Schmidt CO, Rosenblood GS, Greinacher A, Warkentin TE. Immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia can occur in patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin. Am J Hematol 78:188-192, 2005.

Slocum MM, Adams JG Jr, Teel R, Spadone DP, Silver D. Use of enoxaparin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Vasc Surg 23:839-849,1996.

Smith JP, Walls JT, Muscato MS, McCord ES, Worth ER, Curtis JJ, Silver D. Extra-corporeal circulation in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Anaes-thesiology 62:363-365,1985.

Smythe MA, Warkentin TE, Stephens JL, Zakalik D, Mattson JC. Venous limb gangrene during overlapping therapy with warfarin and a direct thrombin inhibitor for immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol 71:50-52, 2002.

Sobel M, Adelman B, Greenfield LJ. Dextran 40 reduces heparin-mediated platelet aggregation. J Surg Res 40:382-387, 1986.

Sobel M, Adelman B, Szentpeterey S, Hofmann M, Posner MP, Jenvey W. Surgical management of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Strategies in the treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism. J Vasc Surg 8:395-401, 1988.

Srinivasan AF, Rice L, Bartholomew JR, Rangaswamy C, La Perna L, Thompson JE, Murphy S, Baker KR. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis and venous limb gangrene in the setting of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Arch Intern Med 164:66-70, 2004.

Taliani MR, Agenelli G, Nenci GG, Gianese F. Dermatan sulphate in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 104:87-89, 1999.

Tardy B, Tardy-Poncet B, Fournel P, Venet C, Jospe R, Dacosta A. Lower limb veins should be systematically explored in patients with isolated heparin-induced throm-bocytopenia [letter]. Thromb Haemost 82:1199-1200, 1999.

Tardy B, Lecompte T, Boelhen F, Tardy-Poncet B, Elalamy I, Morange P, Gruel Y, Wolf M, Francois D, Racadot E, Camarasa P, Blouch MT, Nguyen F, Doubine S, Dutrillaux F, Alhenc-Gelas M, Martin-Toutain I Bauters A, Ffrench P, de Maistre E, Grunebaum L, Mouton C, Huisse MG, Gouault-Heilmann M, Lucke V, and the GEHT-HIT Study Group. Predictive factors for thrombosis and major bleeding in an observational study in 181 patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia treated with lepirudin. Blood 108:1492-1496, 2006.

Teasdale SJ, Zulys VJ, Mycyk T, Baird RJ, Glynn MF. Ancrod anticoagulation for cardio-pulmonary bypass in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Ann Thorac Surg 48:712-713, 1989.

Thorp D, Canty A, Whiting J, Dart G, Lloyd JV, Duncan E, Gallus A. Plasma exchange and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Prog Clin Biol Res 337:521-522, 1990.

Tsao PW, Forsythe MS, Mousa SA. Dissociation between the anti-aggregatory and antisecretory effects of platelet integrin aIIbß3 (GPIIb/IIIa) antagonists, c7E3 and DMP728. Thromb Res 89:137-146, 1997.

Ulsenheimer K. Legal aspects of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: European perspectives. In: Warkentin TE, Greinacher, eds. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia, 3rd edn. New York: Marcel Dekker, 587-593, 2004.

Van Besien K, Hoffman R, Golichowski A. Pregnancy associated with lupus anticoagulant and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: management with a low molecular weight heparinoid. Thromb Res 62:23-29, 1991.

Vender JS, Matthew EB, Silverman IM, Konowitz H, Dau PC. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: alternative managements. Anesth Analg 65:520-522, 1986.

Verme-Gibboney CN, Hursting MJ. Argatroban dosing in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmacother 37:970-975, 2003.

Visentin GP, Ford SE, Scott PJ, Aster RH. Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis are specific for platelet factor 4 complexed with heparin or bound to endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 93:81-88, 1994.

Vitoux JF, Mathieu JF, Roncato M, Fiessinger JN, Aiach M. Heparin-associated throm-bocytopenia treatment with low-molecular weight heparin. Thromb Haemost 55: 37-39,1986.

Vun CM, Evans S, Chong BH. Cross-reactivity study of low molecular weight heparins and heparinoid in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res 81:525-532, 1996.

Wallis DE, Workman KL, Lewis BE, Steen L, Pifarre R, Moran JF. Failure of early heparin cessation as treatment for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Med 106:629-635,1999.

Warkentin TE. Danaparoid (Orgaran) for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia (HIT) and thrombosis: effects on in vivo thrombin and cross-linked fibrin generation, and evaluation of the clinical significance of in vitro cross-reactivity (XR) of danaparoid for HIT-IgG [abstr]. Blood 88(suppl 1):626a, 1996.

Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pathogenesis, frequency, avoidance and management. Drug Saf 17:325-341, 1997.

Warkentin TE. Limitations of conventional treatment options for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Semin Hematol 35(suppl 5):17-25, 1998.

Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: yet another treatment paradox? Thromb Haemost 85:947-949, 2001.

Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis and management. Br J Haematol 121:535-555, 2003.

Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and vascular surgery. Acta Chir Belg 104:257-265, 2004.

Warkentin TE. Should vitamin K be administered when HIT is diagnosed after administration of coumarin? J Thromb Haemost 4:894-896, 2006.

Warkentin TE. The diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. In: Bergan JJ, ed. The Vein Book. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc., 395-403, 2007.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 76:2121-2131, 2003.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recognition, treatment, and prevention: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 126(3 suppl):311S-337S, 2004.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Interaction of heparin with platelets, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. In: Bounameaux H, ed. Low-Molecular-Weight Hepar-ins in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Thromboembolic Diseases. New York: Marcel Dekker, 75-127, 1994.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. A 14-year study of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Med 101:502-507, 1996.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 135:502-506, 2001a.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Temporal aspects of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 344:1286-1292, 2001b.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI. Testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies. Transf Med Rev 20:259-272, 2006.

Warkentin TE, Hayward CPM, Boshkov LK, Santos AV, Sheppard JI, Bode AP, Kelton JG. Sera from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia generate platelet-derived microparticles with procoagulant activity: an explanation for the thrombotic complications of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 84:3691-3699,1994.

Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsh J, Horsewood P, Roberts RS, Gent M, Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med 332:1330-1335, 1995.

Warkentin TE, Elavathil LJ, Hayward CPM, Johnston MA, Russett JI, Kelton JG. The pathogenesis of venous limb gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia. Ann Intern Med 127:804-812, 1997.

Warkentin TE, Chong BH, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: towards consensus. Thromb Haemost 79:1-7,1998.

Warkentin TE, Roberts RS, Hirsh J, Kelton JG. An improved definition of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative orthopedic patients. Arch Intern Med 263:2518-2524, 2003.

Warkentin TE, Cook RJ, Marder VJ, Sheppard JI, Moore JC, Eriksson BI, Greinacher A, Kelton JG. Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in orthopedic surgery patients receiving antithrombotic prophylaxis with fondaparinux or enoxaparin. Blood 106:3791-3996, 2005.

Warkentin TE, Maurer BT, Aster RH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia associated with fondaparinux [letter]. N Engl J Med 2007; in press.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, Koster A, Lincoff AM. Prevention and treatment of HIT. ACCP Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; in press.

Williams RT, Damaraju LV, Mascelli MA, Barnathan ES, Califf RM, Simoons ML, Deliargyris EN, Sane DC. Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. An independent predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction after acute coronary ischemic syndromes. Circulation 107:2307-2312, 2003.

Zwicker JI, Uhl L, Huang WY, Shaz BH, Bauer KA. Thrombosis and ELISA optical density values in hospitalized patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost 2:2133-2137, 2004.

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment