Albisetti M, Andrew M. Low molecular weight heparin in children. Eur J Pediatr 161:71-77, 2002.

Alsoufi B, Boshkov LK, Kirby A, Ibsen L, Dower N, Shen I, Ungerleider R. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in pediatric cardiac surgery: an emerging cause of morbidity and mortality. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 7:155-171, 2004.

Balasa VV. New anticoagulants: A pediatric perspective. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45:741-752, 2005.

Barth KSA. Incidence of the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia at the Justus Liebig University Hospital (MD thesis). Justus Liebig University, Gießen, Germany, 1998.

Bidlingmaier C, Magnani HN, Girisch M, Kurnik K. Safety and efficacy of Danaparoid (Orgaran) use in children. Acta Haematol 115:237-247, 2006.

Bocquet R, Blanot S, Dautzenberg MD, Pierre-Kahn A, Carli P. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in pediatric neurosurgery: a hemostasis problem. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 18:991-995, 1999.

Boning A, Morschheuser T, Blase U, Scheewe J, von der Breie M, Grabitz R, Cremer JT. Incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and therapeutic strategies in pedia-tric cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 79:62-65, 2005.

Boon DM, Michiels JJ, Stibbe J, van Vliet HH, Kappers-Klunne MC. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and antithrombotic therapy. Lancet 344:1296,1994.

Boshkov LK, Thomas G, Kirby A, Shen I, Swanson V, Burch G, Ungerleider R. Pharmacokinetics of argatroban infusion in a 6 month old congenital cardiac patient with previously diagnosed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) [abstr]. Blood 100:269a, 2002.

Boshkov LK, Ibsen L, Kirby A, Ungerleider R, Shen I. Heparin-induced thrombocyto-penia (HIT) in neonates and very young children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery: a likely under-recognized complication with significant morbidity and mortality: report of 4 sequential cases [abstr]. J Thromb Haemost Suppl 1:P1494, 2003a.

Boshkov LK, Ibsen L, Kirby A, Ungerleider R, Shen I. Report of argatroban infusions for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) diagnosed by functional assay in 2 congenital cardiac surgery patients, a neonate and a 5 month old [abstr]. J Thromb Haemost Suppl 1:P1495, 2003b.

Boshkov LK, Kirby A, Heuschkel M. Pharmacokinetics of Fondaparinux by anti-Xa levels and clinical response to anticoagulation in a 4-month old congenital cardiac patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and established venous thrombosis transitioned from argatroban to fondaparinux [abstr]. Blood 104:104b, 2004.

Boshkov LK, Kirby A, Shen I, Ungerleider RM. Recognition and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass patients. Ann Thorac Surg 81:S2355-S2359, 2006.

Butler TJ, Sodoma LJ, Doski JJ, Cheu HW, Berg ST, Stokes GN, Lancaster KJ. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis as the cause of a fatal thrombus on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr Surg 32:768-771,1997.

Dager WE, White RH. Low-molecular-weight heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a child. Ann Pharmacother 38:247-250, 2004.

Deitcher SR, Topoulos AP, Bartholomew JR, Kichuk-Chrisant MR. Lepirudin anticoagulation for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Pediatr 140:264-266, 2002.

Etches WS, Stang LJ, Conradi AG. Incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a pediatric intensive care population [abstr]. Blood 102, 536, 2003.

Frost J, Mureebe L, Russo P, Russo J, Tobias J. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in the pediatric intensive care unit population. Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:216-219, 2005.

Gatti L, Carnelli V, Rusconi R, Moia M. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and warfarin-induced skin necrosis in a child with severe protein C deficiency:

successful treatment with dermatan sulfate and protein C concentrate. J Thromb Haemost 1:387-388, 2003.

Girisch M, Buheitel G, Ries M, Klinge J. Safe and effective use of Danaparoid during cardiac catheterization in a 14 month old boy with tetralogy of fallot and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [abstr]. Ann Hematol 80(Suppl 1):A68, 2001.

Girisch M, Klinge J, Lischetzki G, Buheitel G. In neonates higher doses of orgaran may be needed to achieve effective doses [abstr]. Ann. Hematol 81(Suppl 1):A22, 2002.

Grabowski EF, Buonanno FS, Doody D, Van Cott EM, Grant PE, Jones RM, Whalen M, Nowski N. Two cases of pediatric HIT requiring unusually high doses of direct thrombin inhibitors: does a subset of such patients exist? [abstr] Blood 106: A4161, 2005.

Greinacher A, Amiral J, Dummel V, Vissac A, Kiefel V, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Laboratory diagnosis of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and comparison of platelet aggregation test, heparin-induced platelet activation test, and platelet factor 4/ heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Transfusion 34:381-385,1994.

Greinacher A, Klenner AF. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with a focus on children undergoing cardiac surgery. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 21:71-79, 2005.

Hong AP, Cook DJ, Sigouin CS, Warkentin TE. Central venous catheters and upper-extremity deep-vein thrombosis complicating immune heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia. Blood 101:3049-3051, 2003.

Hursting MJ, Dubb J, Verme-Gibboney CN. Argatroban anticoagulation in pediatric patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 28:4-10, 2006.

Iannoli ED, Eaton MP, Shapiro JR. Bidirectional Glenn shunt surgery using lepirudin anticoagulation in an infant with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis. Anesth Analg 101:74-76, 2005.

John TE, Hallisey RK. Argatroban and lepirudin requirements in a 6-year-old patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pharmacotherapy 25:1383-1388, 2005.

Kawada T, Kitagawa H, Hoson M, Okada Y, Shiomura J. Clinical application of argatroban as an alternative anticoagulant for extracorporeal circulation. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 14:445-457, 2000.

Klement D, Rammos S, Kries R, Kirschke W, Kniemeyer HW, Greinacher A. Heparin as a cause of thrombus progression. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia is an important differential diagnosis in paediatric patients even with normal platelet counts. Eur J Pediatr 155:11-14, 1996.

Klenner AF, Fusch C, Varnholt V, Ringe H, Meyer O, Stiller B, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in pediatrics and its therapy—case-report review of the literature. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 151:1180-1187, 2003a.

Klenner AF, Fusch C, Rakow A, Kadow I, Beyersdorff E, Eichler P, Wander K, Lietz T, Greinacher A. Benefit and risk of heparin for maintaining peripheral venous catheters in neonates: a placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr 143:741-745, 2003b.

Klenner AF, Lubenow N, Raschke R, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia in children: 12 new cases and review of the literature. Thromb Haemost 91: 719-724, 2004.

Knoderer CA, Knoderer HM, Turrentine MW, Kumar M. Lepirudin anticoagulation for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia after cardiac surgery in a pediatric patient. Pharmacotherapy 26:709-712, 2006.

Kumar P, Hoppensteadt DA, Prechel MM, Deddish RB, Walenga JM. Prevalence of heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies in preterm newborns after exposure to unfractionated heparin. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 10:335-339, 2004.

Liedel JL, Panicker N, Kahana MD. Argatroban for anticoagulation in children with heparin-induced platelet antibodies [abstr]. Crit Care Med 31:A132, 2003.

Lischetzki G, Dittrich S, Klinge J. Pediatric heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II on hemodialysis [abstr]. Ann Hematol 24:P38, 2004.

Malherbe S, Tsui BCH, Stobart K, Koller J. Argatroban as an anticoagulant in cardiopulmonary bypass in an infant and attempted reversal with recombinant activated factor VII. Anesthesiology 100:443-445, 2004.

Martchenke J, Boshkov L. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in neonates. Neonatal Netw 24:33-37, 2005.

Martchenke J, Pate MF, Cruz M, Phromsivarak S. What is the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in children? Crit Care Nurse 24:66-67, 2004.

Massicotte P, Julian JA, Gent M, Shields K, Marzinotto V, Szechtman B, Andrew M, REVIVE Study Group. An open-label randomized controlled trial of low molecular weight heparin compared to heparin and coumadin for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events in children: the REVIVE trial. Thromb Res 109:85-92, 2003a.

Massicotte P, Julian JA, Gent M, Shields K, Marzinotto V, Szechtman B, Chan AK, Andrew M, PROTEKT Study Group. An open-label randomized controlled trial of low molecular weight heparin for the prevention of central venous line-related thrombotic complications in children: the PROTEKT trial. Thromb Res 109:101-108, 2003b.

Massicotte P, Julian JA, Marzinotto V, Gent M, Shields K, Chan AK, Szechtman B, Kohne S, Shepherd S, Bacher P, Andrew M. Dose-finding and pharmacokinetic profiles of prophylactic doses of a low molecular weight heparin (reviparin-sodium) in pediatric patients. Thromb Res 109:93-99, 2003c.

Mejak B, Giacomuzzi C, Heller E, You X, Ungerleider R, Shen I, Boshkov L. Argatro-ban usage for anticoagulation for ECMO on a post-cardiac patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Extra Corpor Technol 36:178-181, 2004.

Merkel N, Gunther G, Schobess R. Long-term treatment of thrombosis with enoxaparin in pediatric and adolescent patients. Acta Haematol 115:230-236, 2006.

Monagle P, Chan A, Massicotte P, Chalmers E, Michelson AD. Antithrombotic therapy in children: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 126(Suppl):645S-687S, 2004.

Murdoch IA, Beattie RM, Silver DM. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in children. Acta Paediatr 82:495-497, 1993.

Neuhaus TJ, Goetschel P, Schmugge M, Leumann E. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia type II on hemodialysis: switch to danaparoid. Pediatr Nephrol 14:713-716, 2000.

Newall F, Barnes C, Ignjatovic V, Monagle P. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in children. J Paediatr Child Health 39:289-292, 2003.

Nguyen TN, Gal P, Ransom JL, Carlos R. Lepirudin use in a neonate with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmacother 37:229-233, 2003.

Okada Y, Kawada T, Hoson M. Use of an antithrombotic agent, argatroban, in two patients with ECMO after pediatric open heart surgery. Jpn J Thromb Hemost 11:201-204, 2000.

Oriot D, Wolf M, Wood C, Brun P, Sidi D, Devictor D, Tchernia G, Hualt G. Severe thrombocytopenia induced by heparin in an infant with acute myocarditis. Arch Fr Pediatr 47:357-359,1990.

Porcelli R, Moskowitz BC, Cetta F, Graham LC, Godwin JE, Eidem BW, Prechel MM, Walenga JM. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with associated thrombosis in children after the Fontan operation: report of two cases. Tex Heart Inst J 30:58-61, 2003.

Potter C, Gill JC, Scott JP, McFarland JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a child. J Pediatr 121:135-138,1992.

Pouplard C, May MA, Iochmann S, Amiral J, Vissac AM, Marchand M, Gruel Y. Antibodies to platelet factor 4-heparin after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients anticoagulated with unfractionated heparin or a low-molecular-weight heparin: clinical implications for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Circulation 99:25302536, 1999.

Punzalan RC, Hanson SJ, Ghanayem N, Curtis BR, Murkowski K, Havens PL, McFar-land JG. Prevalence of heparin-dependent platelet antibodies in children after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery [abstr]. Blood 106:845a, 2005.

Ranze O, Rakow A, Ranze P, Eichler P, Greinacher A, Fusch C. Low-dose danaparoid sodium catheter flushes in an intensive care infant suffering from heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2:175-177, 2001.

Ranze O, Ranze P, Magnani HN, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in paediatric patients—a review of the literature and a new case treated with danapar-oid sodium. Eur J Pediatr 158:S130-S133, 1999.

Risch L, Fischer JE, Schmugge M, Huber AR. Association of anti-heparin platelet factor 4 antibody levels and thrombosis in pediatric intensive care patients without thrombocytopenia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 14:113-116, 2003.

Risch L, Huber AR, Schmugge M. Diagnosis and treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in neonates and children. Thromb Res 118:123-135, 2006.

Rischewski J, Eifrig B, Müller-Wiefel D, Neu A, Schneppenheim R, Ganschow R. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type 2 (HIT 2) in a 3 year old child after 2nd liver transplantation [abstr]. Ann Hematol 24:P40, 2004.

Sauer M, Gruhn B, Fuchs D, Altermann W, Zintl F. Heparin-induced type II thrombo-cytopenia within the scope of high dose chemotherapy with subsequent stem cell rescue. Klin Padiatr 210:102-105, 1998.

Saxon BR, Black MD, Edgell D, Noel D, Leaker MT. Pediatric heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: management with Danaparoid (orgaran). Ann Thorac Surg 68:1076-1078, 1999.

Schiffmann H, Unterhalt M, Harms K, Figulla HR, Völpel H, Greinacher A. Successful treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II in childhood with recombinant hirudin. Monatsschr Kinderheilk 145:606-612, 1997.

Schlegel N, Hurtaud-Roux MF. TIH en pediatrie. Presented at the PHARMION HIT-School Paris, 28.03.2003.

Schmugge M, Risch L, Huber AR, Benn A, Fischer JE. Heparin-induced thrombocyto-penia-associated thrombosis in pediatric intensive care patients. Pediatrics 109:E10, 2002.

Scurr J, Baglin T, Burns H, Clements RV, Cooke T, de Swiet M, Paxton Dewar E, Forbes C, Frostick S, Greer I, Hobbs R, Jenkins T, Klein L, Lanigan D, Lowe G,

Warwick D, Wilson J. Risk of and prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in hospital patients. Phlebology 13:87-97,1998.

Severin T, Sutor AH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in pediatrics. Semin Thromb Hemost 27:293-299, 2001.

Severin T, Dittrich S, Zieger B, Kampermann J, Kececioglu D, Sutor AH. HIT II after Fontan procedure—treatment with Lepirudin [abstr]. Ann Hematol 81:A77, 2002a.

Severin T, Zieger B, Sutor AH. Anticoagulation with recombinant hirudin and dana-paroid sodium in pediatric patients. Semin Thromb Hemost 28:447-454, 2002b.

Skouri H, Gandouz R, Abroug S, Kraiem I, Euch H, Gargouri J, Harbi A. A prospective study of the prevalence of heparin-induced antibodies and other associated throm-boembolic risk factors in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis. Am J Hematol 81:328-334, 2006.

Spadone D, Clark F, James E, Laster J, Hoch J, Silver D. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in the newborn. J Vasc Surg 15:306-311, 1992.

Sutor AH, Chan AKC, Massicotte M. Low-molecular weight heparin in pediatric patients. Semin Thromb Hemost 30(Suppl 1):31-39, 2004.

Tcheng WY, Wong W-Y. Successful use of argatroban in pediatric patients requiring anticoagulant alternatives to heparin [abstr]. Blood 104:107b, 2004.

Verso M, Mazzarino I, Agnelli G, Stefanelli M, Ceppi S, Paoletti F. Dermatan sulphate for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and central venous catheter-related deep vein thrombosis in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica 89: ECR06, 2004.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recognition, treatment, and prevention: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 126:311S-337S, 2004.

Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsh J, Horsewood P, Roberts RS, Gent M, Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med 332:1330-1335, 1995.

Weigel B, Laky A, Krishnamurti L. Danaparoid (Orgaran) anticoagulation of pediatric patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21:327,1999.

Wilhelm MJ, Schmid C, Kececioglu D, Mollhoff T, Ostermann H, Scheld HH. Cardio-pulmonary bypass in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia using Org 10172. Ann Thorac Surg 61:920-924, 1996.

Young G. Current and future antithrombotic agents in children. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2:523-534, 2004.

Young G, Nugent DJ. Use of argatroban and fondaparinux in a child with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42:507, 2004.

Zöhrer B, Zenz W, Rettenbacher A, Covi P, Kurnik K, Kroll H, Grubbauer HM, Muntean W. Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran) in four children with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II. Acta Paediatr 90:765-771, 2001.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment