References

Adamson DJA, Currie JM. Occult malignancy is associated with venous thrombosis unresponsive to adequate anticoagulation. Br J Clin Pract 47:190-191,1993.

Aird WC. The role of the endothelium in severe sepsis and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Blood 101:3765-3777, 2003a.

Aird WC. The hematologic system as a marker of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Mayo Clin Proc 78:869-881, 2003b.

Almehmi A, Malas A, Juhelirer SJ. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following cardiovascular surgery: a case report. W V Med J 69:84-86, 2004.

Arnold DM, Smaill F, Warkentin TE, Christjanson L, Walker I. Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis associated with very severe thrombocytopenia and platelet autoantibo-dies. Am J Hematol 76:373-377, 2004.

Arnout J. The pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a hypothesis based on parallelisms with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 75:536-541, 1996.

Arnout J. The role of p2-glycoprotein I-dependent lupus anticoagulants in the pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 62: 353-372, 2000.

Arnout J, Vermylen J. Current status and implications of autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies in relation to thrombotic disease. J Thromb Haemost 1:931-942, 2003.

Arvieux J, Roussel B, Pouzol P, Colomb MG. Platelet activating properties of murine monoclonal antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein I. Thromb Haemost 70:336-341, 1993.

Asherson RA, Khamashta MA, Ordi-Ros J, Derksen RH, Machin SJ, Barquinero J, Outt HH, Harris EN, Vilardell-Torres M, Hughes GR. The "primary" antiphospholipid syndrome: major clinical and serological features. Medicine 68:366-374, 1989.

Aster RH, Curtis BR, Bougie DW, Dunkley S, Greinacher A, Warkentin TE, Chong BH. Thrombocytopenia associated with the use of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors: position paper of the ISTH working group on thrombocytopenia and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors. J Thromb Haemost 4:678-679, 2006.

Auger WR, Permpikul P, Moser KM. Lupus anticoagulant, heparin use, and thrombo-cytopenia in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a preliminary report. Am J Med 99:392-396, 1995.

Balduini CL, Noris P, Bertolino G, Previtali M. Heparin modifies platelet count and function in patients who have undergone thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction [letter]. Thromb Haemost 69:522-532, 1993.

Benke S, Moltzan C. Co-existence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombo-tic thrombocytopenic purpura in a postoperative cardiac surgery patient. Am J Hematol 80:288-291, 2005.

Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher JC Jr. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 344: 699-709, 2001.

Bone RC, Francis PB, Pierce AK. Intravascular coagulation associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Med 61:585-589,1976.

Bougie DW, Wilker PR, Wuitschick ED, Curtis BR, Malik M, Levine S, Lind RN, Pereira J, Aster RH. Acute thrombocytopenia after treatment with tirofiban or eptifibatide is associated with antibodies specific for ligand-occupied GPIIb/IIIa. Blood 100:2071-2076, 2002.

Bourhim M, Darnige L, Legallais C, Arvieux J, Cevallos R, Pouplard C, Vigayalakshmi MA. Anti-ß2-glycoprotem I antibodies recognizing platelet factor 4-heparin complex in antiphospholipid syndrome in patient substantiated with mouse model. J Mol Recognit 16:125-130, 2003.

Campbell RR, Foster KJ, Stirling C, Mundy D, Reckless JPD. Paradoxical platelet behaviour in diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabet Med 3:161-164, 1985.

Casteels K, Beckers D, Wouters C, Van Geet C. Rhabdomyolysis in diabetic ketoacido-sis. Pediatr Diabetes 4:29-31, 2003.

Chang JC, Ikhlaque N. Peripheral digit ischemic syndrome can be a manifestation of postoperative thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Ther Apher Dial 8:413-418, 2004.

Chang JC, Shipstone A, Llenado MA. Postoperative thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following cardiovascular surgeries. Am J Hematol 53:11-17, 1996.

Chang JC, El-Tarabily M, Gupta S. Acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following abdominal surgeries: a report of three cases. J Clin Apher 15:176-179, 2000.

Chiu HM, van Aken WG, Hirsh J, Regoeczi E, Horner AA. Increased heparin clearance in experimental pulmonary embolism. J Lab Clin Med 90:204-215, 1977.

Curtis BR, Swyers J, Divgi A, McFarland JG, Aster RH. Thrombocytopenia after second exposure to abciximab is caused by antibodies that recognize abciximab-coated platelets. Blood 99:2054-2059, 2002.

Curtis BR, Divgi A, Garritty M, Aster RH. Delayed thrombocytopenia after treatment with abciximab: a distinct clinical entity associated with the immune response to the drug. J Thromb Haemost 2:985-992, 2004.

De Gennes C, Souilhem J, Du LTH, Chapelon C, Raguin G, Wechsler B, Blétry O, Godeau P. Embolie arterielle des membres au cours des endocardites infectieuses sur valves natives. Presse Med 19:1177-1181, 1990.

Delahaye JP, Poncet P, Malquarti V, Beaune J, Garé JP, Mann JM. Cerebrovascular accidents in infective endocarditis: role of anticoagulation. Eur Heart J 1:1074-1078, 1990.

Eikelboom JW, Anand SS, Mehta SR, Weitz JI, Yi C, Yusuf S. Prognostic significance of thrombocytopenia during hirudin and heparin therapy in acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation: Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS-2) study. Circulation 103; 643-650, 2001.

Everett RN, Jones FL Jr. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis. A cutaneous sign of malignancy? Postgrad Med 79:97-103, 1986.

Fijnvandraat K, Derkx B, Peters M, Bijlmer R, Sturk A, Prins MH, van Deventer SJH, ten Cate JW. Coagulation activation and tissue necrosis in meningococcal septic shock: severely reduced protein C levels predict a high mortality. Thromb Haemost 73:15-20, 1995.

Ford I, Urbaniak S, Greaves M. IgG from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome binds to platelets without induction of platelet activation. Br J Haematol 102: 841-849,1998.

Galli M. Non beta2-glycoprotein I cofactors for antiphospholipid antibodies. Lupus 5: 388-392,1996.

Galli M, Daldossi M, Barbui T. Anti-glycoprotein Ib/IX and IIb/IIIa antibodies in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Haemost 71:571-575, 1994.

Galli M, Finazzi G, Barbui T. Thrombocytopenia in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Br J Haematol 93:1-5,1996.

Galli M, Luciani D, Bertolini G, Barbui T. Lupus anticoagulants are stronger risk factors for thrombosis than anticardiolipin antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Blood 101:1827-1832, 2003.

Gibson GE, Su WP, Pittelkow MR. Antiphospholipid syndrome and the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 36(pt l):970-982, 1997.

Ginsberg JS, Wells PS, Brill-Edwards P, Donovan D, Moffatt K, Johnston M, Stevens P, Hirsh J. Antiphospholipid antibodies and venous thromboembolism. Blood 86: 3685-3691,1995.

Greinacher A. Antigen generation in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the non-immunologic type and the immunologic type are closely linked in their pathogen-esis. Semin Thromb Hemost 21:106-116, 1995.

Gruel Y. Antiphospholipid syndrome and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: update on similarities and differences. J Autoimmun 15:265-268, 2000.

Hayes MA, Yau EH, Hinds CJ, Watson JD. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene: association with noradrenaline administration. Intensive Care Med 18:433-436,1992.

Hojnik M, George J, Ziporen L, Shoenfeld Y. Heart valve involvement (Libman-Sacks endocarditis) in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Circulation 93:1579-1587, 1996.

Iosifidis MI, Ntavlis M, Giannoulis I, Malioufas L, Ioannou A, Giantsis G. Acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following orthopedic surgery: a case report. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 126:335-338, 2006.

Jankowski M, Vreys I, Wittevrongel C, Boon D, Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF, Arnout J. Thrombogenicity of b2-glycoprotein I dependent antiphospholipid antibodies in a photochemically induced thrombosis model in the hamster. Blood 101:157-162, 2003.

Johansen K, Hansen ST Jr. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (purpura fulminans) complicating pneumococcal sepsis. Am J Surg 165:642-655, 1993.

Kitchens CS. Thrombocytopenia due to acute venous thromboembolism and its role in expanding the differential diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol 76:69-73, 2004.

Klein L, Galvez A, Klein O, Chediak J. Warfarin-induced limb gangrene in the setting of lung adenocarcinoma. Am J Hematol 76:176-179, 2004.

Knight TT Jr, Gordon SV, Canady J, Rush DS, Browder W. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene: a new presentation of an old disease. Am Surg 66:196-199, 2000.

Kullberg BJ, Westendorp RGJ, van't Wout JW, Meinders AE. Purpura fulminans and symmetrical peripheral gangrene caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus (formerly DF-2) septicemia—a complication of dog bite. Medicine (Balt) 70:287-292, 1991.

Lasne D, Saffroy R, Bachelot C, Vincenot A, Rendu F, Papo T, Aiach M, Piette J-C. Tests for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in primary antiphospholipid syndrome [letter]. Br J Haematol 97:939, 1997.

Lebrazi J, Helft G, Abdelouahed M, Elalamy I, Mirshahi M, Samama MM, Lecompte T. Human anti-streptokinase antibodies induce platelet aggregation in an Fc receptor (CD32) dependent manner. Thromb Haemost 74:938-942,1995.

Lee AY, Levine MN, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Rickle FR, Julian JA, Haley S, Kovacs MJ, Gent M. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med 349:109-111, 2003.

Lipp E, von Felten A, Sax H, Müller D, Berchtold P. Antibodies against platelet glycoproteins and antiphospholipid antibodies in autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol 60:283-288, 1998.

Lo GK, Juhl D, Warkentin TE, Sigouin CS, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 T's) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two clinical settings. J Thromb Haemost 4:759-765, 2006.

Lubenow N, Eichler P, Albrecht D, Carlsson LE, Kothmann J, Rossocha W, Hahn M, Quitmann H, Greinacher A. Very low platelet counts in post-transfusion purpura falsely diagnosed as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Report of four cases and review of literature. Thromb Res 100:115-125, 2000.

Lubenow N, Kempf R, Eichner A, Eichler P, Carlsson LE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: temporal pattern of thrombocytopenia in relation to initial use or reexposure to heparin. Chest 122:37-42, 2002.

Lutters BC, Meijers JC, Derksen RH, Arnout J, de Groot PG. Dimers of ß2-glycoprotein I mimic the in vitro effects of ß2-glycoprotein I-anti-ß2-glycoprotein I antibody complexes. J Biol Chem 276:3060-3067, 2001.

Martinuzzo ME, Maclouf J, Carreras LO, Levy-Toledano S. Antiphospholipid antibodies enhance thrombin-induced platelet activation and thromboxane formation. Thromb Haemost 70:667-671, 1993.

Martinuzzo ME, Forastiero RR, Adamczuk Y, Pombo G, Carreras LO. Antiplatelet factor 4-heparin antibodies in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Res 95:271-279, 1999.

Monreal M, Lafoz E, Casals A, Ruiz J, Arias A. Platelet count and venous thromboem-bolism. A useful test for suspected pulmonary embolism. Chest 100:1493-1496, 1991.

Morgan M, Downs K, Chesterman CN, Biggs JC. Clinical analysis of 125 patients with the lupus anticoagulant. Aust NZ J Med 23:151-156, 1993.

Morris TA, Marsh JJ, Chiles PG, Pedersen CA, Konopka RG, Gamst AC, Loza O. Embolization itself stimulates thrombus propagation in pulmonary embolism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287:H818-H822, 2004.

Mustafa MH, Mispireta LA, Pierce LE. Occult pulmonary embolism presenting with thrombocytopenia and elevated fibrin split products. Am J Med 86:490-491, 1989.

Naqvi TA, Baumann MA, Chang JC. Post-operative thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a review. Int J Clin Pract 58:169-172, 2004.

Ng HJ, Crowther MA. Malignancy-associated venous thrombosis with concurrent warfarin-induced skin necrosis, venous limb gangrene and thrombotic microangio-pathy. Thromb Haemost 95:1038-1039, 2006.

Opatrny L, Warner MN. Risk of thrombosis in patients with malignancy and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol 76:240-244, 2004.

Owings JT, Bagley M, Gosselin R, Romac D, Disbrow E. Effect of critical injury on plasma antithrombin activity: low antithrombin levels are associated with throm-boembolic complications. J Trauma 41:396-405,1996.

Paton RC. Haemostatic changes in diabetic coma. Diabetologia 21:172-177, 1981.

Pavlovsky M, Weinstein R. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: prospective observations of an emerging syndrome. J Clin Apher 12:159-164, 1997.

Petri M. Pathogenesis and treatment of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Adv Rheumatol 81:151-177, 1997.

Phillips DE, Payne DK, Mills GM. Heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmacother 28:43-46, 1994.

Prandoni P. Antithrombotic strategies in patients with cancer. Thromb Haemost 78:141-144, 1997.

Regnault V, Helft G, Wahl D, Czitrom D, Vuillemenot A, Papouin G, Roda L, Danchin N, Lecompte T. Antistreptokinase platelet-activating antibodies are common and heterogeneous. J Thromb Haemost 1:1055-1061, 2003.

Rinaldo JE, Perez H. Ischemic necrosis of both lower extremities as a result of the microembolism syndrome complicating the adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by Escherichia coli pneumonia and septicemia. Am Rev Respir Dis 126: 932-935, 1982.

Robson MO, Abbs IC. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following hemicolectomy for colonic carcinoma. Nephrol Dial Transplant 12:198-199, 1997.

Rosse WF. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria as a molecular disease. Medicine 76:63-93, 1997.

Sane DC, Damaraju LV, Topol EJ, Cabot CF, Mascelli MA, Harrington RA, Simoons ML, Califf RM. Occurrence and clinical significance of pseudothrombocytopenia during abciximab therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:75-83, 2000.

Selleng K, Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, Morris AM, Walker IR, Heggtveit HA, Eichler P, Cybulsky IJ. Very severe thrombocytopenia and fragmentation hemolysis mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with a giant intracardiac vegetation infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis: role of monocyte procoagulant activity induced by bacterial supernatant. Am J Hematol 2006; Dec 7; [Epub ahead of print].

Shi W, Chong BH, Chesterman CN. ß2-Glycoprotein I is a requirement for anti-cardiolipin antibodies binding to activated platelets: differences with lupus anticoagulants. Blood 81:1255-1262, 1993.

Smith OP, White B. Infectious purpura fulminans: diagnosis and treatment. Br J Haematol 104:202-207, 1999.

Stahl RL, Javid JP, Lackner H. Unrecognized pulmonary embolism presenting as disseminated intravascular coagulation. Am J Med 76:772-778, 1984.

Sudic D, Razmara M, Forslund M, Ji Q, Hjemdahl P, Li N. High glucose levels enhance platelet activation: involvement of multiple mechanisms. Br J Haematol 133: 315-322, 2006.

Ting W, Silverman NA, Arzouman DA, Levitsky S. Splenic septic emboli in endocarditis. Circulation 82(suppl 5):IV105-IV109,1990.

Triplett DA. Lupus anticoagulants/antiphospholipid-protein antibodies: the great imposters. Lupus 5:431-435,1996.

Vaughan DE, Kirshenbaum JM, Loscalzo J. Streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated platelet aggregation: a potential cause of clot propagation in vivo. J Am Coll Cardiol 11:1343-1348, 1988.

Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF, Arnout J. Antibody-mediated thrombosis. 78:420-426, 1997.

Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: IgG-mediated platelet activation platelet microparticle generation, and altered procoagulant/anticoagulant balance in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and venous limb gangrene complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Transfusion Med Rev 10:249-258, 1996.

Warkentin TE. Venous thromboembolism in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Curr Opin Pulm Med 6:343-351, 2000.

Warkentin TE. Venous limb gangrene during warfarin treatment of cancer-associated deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 135:589-593, 2001.

Warkentin TE. Drug-induced, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia—from purpura to thrombosis. N Engl J Med 356:891-893, 2007.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Interaction of heparin with platelets, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. In: Bounameaux H, ed. Low-Molecular-Weight Hepar-ins in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Thromboembolic Diseases. New York: Marcel Dekker, 75-127, 1994.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Temporal aspects of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 344:1286-1992, 2001.

Warkentin TE, Elavathil LJ, Hayward CPM, Johnston MA, Russett JI, Kelton JG. The pathogenesis of venous limb gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia. Ann Intern Med 127:804-812, 1997.

Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsh J, Horsewood P, Roberts RS, Gent M, Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med 332:1330-1335, 1995.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI, Horsewood P, Simpson PJ, Moore JC, Kelton JG. Impact of the patient population on the risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 96: 1703-1708, 2000.

Warkentin TE, Roberts RS, Hirsh J, Kelton JG. An improved definition of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative orthopedic patients. Arch Intern Med 163:2518-2524, 2003a.

Warkentin TE, Aird AC, Rand J. Platelet-endothelial interactions: sepsis, HIT, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program) 497-519, 2003b.

Weitz JI, Hudoba M, Massel D, Maraganore J, Hirsh J. Clot-bound thrombin is protected from inhibition by heparin-antithrombin III but is susceptible to inactiva-tion by antithrombin Ill-independent inhibitors. J Clin Invest 86:385-391, 1990.

Weitz JI, Leslie B, Hudoba M. Thrombin binds to soluble fibrin degradation products where it is protected from inhibition by heparin-antithrombin but susceptible to inactivation by antithrombin-independent inhibitors. Circulation 97:544-552,1998.

Welch WH. The structure of white thrombi. Trans Pathol Soc Philadelphia. 13:25-43, 1887.

White B, Livingstone W, Murphy C, Hodgson A, Fafferty M, Smith OP. An open-label study of the role of adjuvant hemostatic support with protein C replacement therapy in purpura fulminans-associated meningococcemia. Blood 96:3719-3724, 2000.

Wiedmer T, Hall SE, Ortel TL, Kane WH, Rosse WF, Sims PJ. Complement-induced vesiculation and exposure of membrane prothrombinase sites in platelets of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 82:1192—1196,1993.

Winkler MJ, Trunkey DD. Dopamine gangrene. Am J Surg 142:588-589,1981.

Yan SB, Helterbrand JD, Hartman DL, Wright TJ, Bernard GR. Low levels of protein C are associated with poor outcome in severe sepsis. Chest 120:915-922, 2001.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment