AbuRahma AF, Boland JP, Witsberger T. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of white clot syndrome. Am J Surg 162:175-179, 1991.

Antman EM. Hirudin in acute myocardial infarction: safety report from the Thrombo-lysis and Thrombin Inhibition in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 9A trial. Circulation 90:1624-1630, 1994.

Badger NO, Butler K, Hallman LC. Excessive anticoagulation and anaphylactic reaction after rechallenge with lepirudin in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia. Pharmacotherapy 24:1800-1803, 2004.

Begelman SM, Deitcher SR. Outpatient management of venous thromboembolic disease with subcutaneous lepirudin: a case report. J Thromb Thrombolysis 13:183-185, 2002.

Bircher AJ, Czendlik CH, Messmer SL, Muller P, Howard H. Acute urticaria caused by subcutaneous recombinant hirudin: evidence for an IgG-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:994-996, 1996.

Bircher AJ, Harr, T, Hohenstein L, Tsakiris, DA. Hypersensitivity reactions to anticoagulant drugs: diagnosis and management options. Allergy 61:1432-1440, 2006.

Bove CM, Casey B, Marder VJ. DDAVP reduces bleeding during continued hirudin administration in the rabbit. Thromb Haemost 75:471-475,1996.

Bucha E, Nowak G, Czerwinski R, Thieler H. r-hirudin as anticoagulant in regular hemodialysis therapy: finding of therapeutic r-hirudin blood/plasma concentrations and respective dosages. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 5:164-170,1999.

Butler KD, Dolan SL, Talbot MD, Wallis RB. Factor VII and DDAVP reverse the effect of recombinant desulphatohirudin (CGB 39393) on bleeding in the rat. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 4:459-464, 1993.

Callas DD, Hoppensteadt DA, Iqbal O, Rubsamen K, Fareed J. Ecarin clotting time (ECT) is a reliable method for the monitoring of hirudins, argatroban, efegatran and related drugs in therapeutic and cardiovascular indications [abstr]. Blood 86(10 suppl l):866a, 1995.

Clore GM, Sukumaran DK, Nilges M, Zarbock J, Gronenborn AM. The conformation of hirudin in solution. A study using nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics. EMBO J 6:529-553, 1987.

Dager WE, White RH. Use of lepirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocyto-penia and renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Ann Pharmacother 35:885-890, 2001.

Dager WE, White RH. Treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmac-other 36:489-503, 2002.

de Denus S, Spinier SA. Clinical monitoring of direct thrombin inhibitors using the ecarin clotting time. Pharmacotherapy 22:433-435, 2002.

Deitcher SR, Topoulos AP, Bartholomew JR, Kichuk-Chrisant MR. Lepirudin anticoagulation for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Pediatr 140:264-266, 2002.

Dickneite G, Friesen HJ, Kumpe G, Reers M. Reduction of r-hirudin induced bleeding in pigs by the administration of von Willebrand factor. Platelets 7:283-290,1996.

Dickneite G, Nicolay U, Friesen HJ, Reers M. Development of an anti-bleeding agent for recombinant hirudin induced skin bleeding in the pig. Thromb Haemost 80: 192-198, 1998.

Diehl KH, Romisch J, Hein B, Jessel A, Ronneberger H, Paques EP. Investigation of activated prothrombin complex concentrate as potential hirudin antidote in animal models. Haemostasis 25:182-192, 1995.

Direct Thrombin Inhibitors Trialists' Collaborative Group. Direct thrombin inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome: principal results of a meta-analysis based on individual patients' data. Lancet 359:294-302, 2002.

Eichler P, Budde U, Haas S, Kroll H, Loreth RM, Meyer O, Pachmann U, Pötzsch B, Schabel A, Albrecht D, Greinacher A. First workshop for detection of heparin-induced antibodies: validation of the heparin-induced platelet activation test (HIPA) in comparison with a PF4/heparin ELISA. Thromb Haemost 81:625-629,1999.

Eichler P, Friesen HJ, Lubenow N, Jaeger B, Greinacher A. Antihirudin antibodies in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia treated with lepirudin: incidence, effects on aPTT, and clinical relevance. Blood 96:2373-2378, 2000.

Eriksson BI, Ekman S, Kalebo P, Zachrisson B, Bach D, Close P. Prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after total hip replacement: direct thrombin inhibition with recombinant hirudin, CGP 39393. Lancet 347:635-639, 1996.

Eriksson BI, Wille-Jorgensen P, Kalebo P, Mouret P, Rosencher N, Bosch P, Baur M, Ekman S, Bach D, Lindbratt S, Close P. A comparison of recombinant hirudin with a low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent thromboembolic complications after total hip replacement. N Engl J Med 337:1329-1335, 1997.

Fabrizio MC. Use of ecarin clotting time (ECT) with lepirudin therapy in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and cardiopulmonary bypass. J Extra Corpor Technol 33:117-125, 2001.

Farner B, Eichler P, Kroll H, Greinacher A. A comparison of danaparoid and lepirudin in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 85:950-957, 2001.

Fischer KG. Hirudin in renal insufficiency. Semin Thromb Hemost 28:467-482, 2002.

Fischer KG, van de Loo A, Böhler J. Recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) as anticoagulant in intensive care patients treated with continuous hemodialysis. Kidney Int 56(suppl 72):S46-S50, 1999.

Fischer KG, Liebe V, Hudek R, Piazolo L, Haase KK, Borggrefe M, Huhle G. Anti-hirudin antibodies alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant hirudin. Thromb Haemost 89:973-982, 2003.

Follis F, Schmidt CA. Cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Thorac Surg 70:2173-2181, 2000.

Frank RD, Farber H, Stefanidis I, Lanzmich R, Kierdorf HP. Hirudin elimination by hemofiltration: a comparative in vitro study of different membranes. Kidney Int 72(suppl):S41-S45, 1999.

Glusa E. Pharmacology and therapeutic applications of hirudin, a new anticoagulant. Kidney Int 64(suppl):S54-S56,1998.

Glusa E, Markwardt F. Platelet functions in recombinant hirudin-anticoagulated blood. Haemostasis 20:112-118,1990.

Gosselin RC, King JH, Janatpour KA, Dager WE, Larkin EC, Owings JT. Comparing direct thrombin inhibitors using aPTT, ecarin clotting times, and thrombin inhibitor management testing. Ann Pharmacother 38:1383-8, 2004.

Gray E, Harenberg J, ISTH Control of Anticoagulation SSC Working Group on Thrombin Inhibitors. Collaborative study on monitoring methods to determine direct thrombin inhibitors lepirudin and argatroban. Thromb Haemost 3:2096-2097, 2005.

Greinacher A, Michels I, Kiefel V, Mueller-Eckhardt C. A rapid and sensitive test for diagnosing heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 66:734-736, 1991.

Greinacher A, Eckhardt T, Mußmann J, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Pregnancy complicated by heparin associated thrombocytopenia: management by a prospectively in vitro selected heparinoid (Org 10172). Thromb Res 71:123-127, 1993.

Greinacher A, Völpel H, Janssens U, Hach-Wunderle V, Kemkes-Matthes B, Eichler P, Mueller-Velten HG, Pötzsch B. Recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) provides safe and effective anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study. Circulation 99:73-80, 1999a.

Greinacher A, Janssens U, Berg G, Böck M, Kwasny H, Kemkes-Matthes B, Eichler P, Völpel H, Pötzsch B, Luz M for the Heparin-Associated Thrombocytopenia Study (HAT) investigators. Lepirudin (recombinant hirudin) for parenteral anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Circulation 100:587-593, 1999b.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Kwasny H, Luz M. Heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia with thromboembolic complications: meta-analysis of 2 prospective trials to assess the value of parenteral treatment with lepirudin and its therapeutic aPTT range. Blood 96:846-851, 2000.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Albrecht D, Strobel U, Pötzsch B, Eriksson BI. Antihirudin antibodies following low-dose subcutaneous treatment with desirudin for thrombosis prophylaxis after hip-replacement surgery: incidence and clinical relevance. Blood 101:2617-2619, 2003a.

Greinacher A, Warkentin TE. Recognition, treatment, and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: review and update. Thromb Res 118:165-176, 2006.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lubenow N. Anaphylactic reactions associated with lepirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Circulation 108: 2062-2065, 2003b.

Haas G. Über Versuche der Blutauswaschung am Lebenden mit Hilfe der Dialyse. Klin Wochenschr 4:13-14, 1924.

Hach-Wunderle V. Hirudin in der Gefaesschirurgie. In: Greinacher A, ed. Hirudin in der vaskulaeren Medizin. Bremen: Uni-Med Verlag 76-77, 2001.

Hacquard M, de Maistre E, Lecompte T. Lepirudin: is the approved dosing schedule too high? J Thromb Haemost. 3:2593-2596, 2005.

Hafner G, Roser M, Nauck M. Methods for the monitoring of direct thrombin inhibitors. Semin Thromb Hemost 28:425-430, 2002.

Hermann JPR, Kutryk MJV, Serruys PW. Clinical trials of direct thrombin inhibitors during invasive procedures. Thromb Haemost 78:367-376,1997.

Hogg PJ, Jackson CM. Fibrin monomer protects thrombin from inactivation by heparin-antithrombin III: implications for heparin efficacy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:3619-3623, 1989.

Huhle G, Song X, Wang LC, Hoffman U, Harenberg J. Generation and disappearance of antihirudin antibodies during treatment with r-hirudin. Fibrinol Proteol 12(suppl 2):91-113, 1998.

Huhle G, Hoffmann U, Hoffmann I, Liebe V, Harenberg JF, Heene DL. A new therapeutic option by subcutaneous recombinant hirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II: a pilot study. Thromb Res 99:325-334, 2000a.

Huhle G, Geberth M, Hoffmann U, Heene DL, Harenberg J. Management of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia in pregnancy with subcutaneous r-hirudin. Gynecol Obstet Invest 49:67-69, 2000b.

Huhle G, Liebe V, Hudek R, Heene DL. Anti-r-hirudin antibodies reveal clinical relevance through direct functional inactivation of r-hirudin or prolongation of r-hirudin's plasma halflife. Thromb Haemost 85:936-938, 2001.

Ibbotson SH, Grant PJ, Kerry R, Findlay VS, Prentice CRM. The influence of infusions of l-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) in vivo on the anticoagulant effect of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39393) in vitro. Thromb Haemost 65:64-66, 1991.

Irami MS, White HJ Jr, Sexon RG. Reversal of hirudin-induced bleeding diathesis by prothrombin complex concentrate. Am J Cardiol 75:422-423, 1995.

Jagadeeswaran P, Liu YC, Eddy CA. Effects of hirudin (thrombin specific inhibitor) in zebrafish embryos: a developmental role for thrombin. Blood Cells Mol Dis 23: 410-414, 1997.

Jappe U, Reinhold D, Bonnekoh B. Arthus reaction to lepirudin, a new recombinant hirudin, and delayed-type hypersensitivity to several heparins and heparinoids, with tolerance to its intravenous administration. Contact Dermatitis 46:29-32, 2002.

Johnston N, Jessen ME, DiMaio M, Douglass DS. The emergency use of recombinant hirudin in cardiopulmonary bypass. J Extra Corpor Technol 31:211-215,1999.

Kaiser B, Markwardt F. Antithrombotic and haemorrhagic effects of synthetic and naturally occurring thrombin inhibitors. Thromb Res 43:613-620, 1986.

Kern H, Ziemer S, Kox WJ. Bleeding after intermittent or continuous r-hirudin during CVVH. Intensive Care Med 25:1311-1314, 1999.

King DJ, Kelton JG. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Ann Intern Med 100: 535-540, 1984.

Klenner AF, Lubenow N, Raschke R, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia in children: 12 new cases and review of the literature. Thromb Haemost 91: 719-724, 2004.

Kornalik F, Blombäck B. Prothrombin activation induced by ecarin—a prothrombin converting enzyme from Echis carinatus venom. Thromb Res 6:57-63, 1975.

Koster A, Kuppe H, Hetzer R, Sodian R, Crystal GJ, Mertzlufft F. Emergent cardio-pulmonary bypass in five patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II employing recombinant hirudin. Anesthesiology 89:777-780, 1998.

Koster A, Hansen R, Grauhan O, Hausmann H, Bauer M, Hetzer R, Kuppe H, Mertzlufft F. Hirudin monitoring using the TAS ecarin clotting time in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II. J Cardiothorac Vase Anesth 14:249-252, 2000a.

Koster A, Hansen R, Kuppe H, Hetzer R, Crystal GJ, Mertzlufft F. Recombinant hirudin as an alternative for anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II: a 1-year experience in 57 patients. J Cardiothorac Vase Anesth 14:243-248, 2000b.

Lange U, Nowak G, Bucha E. Ecarin chromogenic assay-a new method for quantitative determination of direct thrombin inhibitors like hirudin. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 33:184-191, 2003.

Lange U, Olschewski A, Nowak G, Bucha E. Ecarin chromogenic assay: an innovative test for quantitative determination of direct thrombin inhibitors in plasma. Hämos-taseologie 25:293-300, 2005.

Latham P, Revelis AF, Joshi GP, DiMaio JM, Jessen ME. Use of recombinant hirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis requiring cardio-pulmonary bypass. Anaesthesiology 92:263-266, 2000.

Liebe V, Brückmann M, Fischer KG, Haase KK, Borggrefe M, Huhle G. Biological relevance of anti-recombinant hirudin antibodies-results from in vitro and in vivo studies. Semin Thromb Hemost 28:483-489, 2002.

Lindhoff-Last E, Willeke A, Thalhammer C, Nowak G, Bauersachs R. Hirudin treatment in a breastfeeding woman [letter]. Lancet 355:467-468, 2000a.

Lindhoff-Last E, Piechottka GP, Rabe F, Bauersachs R. Hirudin determination in plasma can be strongly influenced by the prothrombin level. Thromb Res 100:55-60, 2000b.

Lindhoff-Last E, Bauersachs R. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia-alternative anticoagulation in pregnancy and lactation. Semin Thromb Haemost 28:439-445, 2002.

Liu H, Fleming NW, Moore PG. Anticoagulation for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia using recombinant hirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Clin Anesth 14:452-455, 2002.

Longrois D, de Maistre E, Bischoff N, Dopff C, Meistelman C, Angioi M, Lecompte T. Recombinant hirudin anticoagulation for aortic valve replacement in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Can J Anaesth 47:255-260, 2000.

Lubenow N, Greinacher A. Hirudin in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Semin Thromb Hemost 28:431-438, 2002.

Lubenow N, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Results of a large drug monitoring program confirms the safety and efficacy of Refludan (lepirudin) in patients with immunemediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) [abstr]. Blood 100(suppl l):502a, 2002.

Lubenow N, Eichler P, Lietz T, Farner B, Greinacher A. Lepirudin for prophylaxis of thrombosis in patients with acute isolated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: an analysis of 3 prospective studies. Blood 104:3072-3077, 2004.

Lubenow N, Eichler P, Lietz T, Greinacher A, and the HIT Investigators Group. Lepirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia - results of the third prospective study (HAT-3) and a combined analysis of HAT-1, HAT-2, and HAT-3. J Thromb Haemost 3:2428-2436, 2005.

Markwardt F. Hirudin: the promising antithrombotic. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 10: 211-232,1992.

Markwardt F, Fink G, Kaiser B, Klocking HP, Nowak G, Richter M, Sturzebecher J. Pharmacological survey of recombinant hirudin. Pharmazie 43:202-207, 1988.

Markwardt F. Development of hirudin as an antithrombotic agent. Semin Thromb Hemost 15:269-282, 1989.

Mehta SR, Eikelboom JW, Rupprecht H-.J, Lewis BS, Natarajan MK, Yi C, Pogue J, Yusuf S. Efficacy of hirudin in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing early percutaneous coronary intervention. Eur Heart J 23:117-123, 2002.

Meyer BJ, Badimon JJ, Chesebro JH, Fallon JT, Fuster V, Badimon L. Dissolution of mural thrombus by specific thrombin inhibition with r-hirudin: comparison with heparin and aspirin. Circulation 97:681-685,1998.

Nand S, Wong W, Yuen B, Yetter A, Schmulbach E, Gross Fisher S. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis: incidence, analysis of risk factors, and clinical outcomes in 108 consecutive patients treated at a single institution. Am J Hematol 56:12-16, 1997.

Neuhaus KL, von Essen R, Tebbe U, Jessel A, Heinrichs H, Maurer W, Doring W, Harnjanz D, Kotter V, Kalhammer E, et al. Safety observations from the pilot phase of the randomized r-Hirudin for Improvement of Thrombolysis (HIT-III) study: a study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Leitender Kardiologischer Krankenhausarzte (ALKK). Circulation 90:1638-1642,1994.

Neuhaus KL, Molhoek GP, Zeymer U, Tebbe U, Wegschieder K, Schroder R, Camez A, Laarman GJ, Grollier GM, Lok DJ, Kuckuck H, Lazarus P. Recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) for the improvement of thrombolysis with streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction: results of the HIT-4 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 34:966-973, 1999.

Nguyen TN, Gal P, Ransom JL, Carlos R. Lepirudin use in a neonate with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmacother 37:229-233, 2003.

Nishida S, Fujita T, Kohno N, Atoda H, Morita T, Takeya H, Kido I, Paine MJ, Kawabata S, Iwanaga S. cDNA cloning and deduced amino acid sequence of prothrombin activator (ecarin) from Kenyan Echis carinatus venom. Biochemistry 34:1771-1778,1995.

Novoa E, Seegers WH. Mechanisms of alpha-thrombin and beta-thrombin-E formation: use of ecarin for isolation of meizothrombin 1. Thromb Res 18:657-668, 1980.

Nowak G. Clinical monitoring of hirudin and direct thrombin inhibitors. Semin Thromb Hemost 27:537-541, 2001.

Nowak G, Bucha E. Prothrombin conversion intermediate effectively neutralizes toxic levels of hirudin. Thromb Res 80:317-325, 1995.

Nowak G, Bucha E. Quantitative determination of hirudin in blood and body fluids. Semin Thromb Haemost 22:197-202, 1996.

Nowak G, Bucha E, Goock T, Prasa D, Thieler H. Pharmakokinetik von Hirudin bei gestorter Nierenfunktion. Haemostaseologie 11:152-157, 1991.

Nowak G, Bucha E, Gööck T, Thieler H, Markwardt F. Pharmacology of r-hirudin in renal impairment. Thromb Res 66:707-715,1992.

Nowak G, Bucha E, Brauns I, Czerwinski R. Anticoagulation with r-hirudin in regular haemodialysis with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT II). The first long term application of r-hirudin in a haemodialysis patient. Wien Klin Wochenschr 109: 354-358,1997.

Oh JJ, Akers WS, Lewis D, Ramaiah C, Flynn JD. Recombinant factor VIIa for refractory bleeding after cardiac surgery secondary to anticoagulation with the direct thrombin inhibitor lepirudin. Pharmacotherapy 26:569-577, 2006.

Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS) Investigators. Comparison of the effects of two doses of recombinant hirudin compared with heparin in patients with acute myocardial ischemia without ST elevation: a pilot study. Circulation 96:769-777,1997.

Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS-2) Investigators. Effects of recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) compared with heparin on death, myo-cardial infarction, refractory angina, and revascularisation procedures in patients with acute myocardial ischemia without ST elevation: a randomised trial. Lancet 353:429-438, 1999.

Parent F, Bridey F, Dreyfus M, Musset D, Grimon G, Duroux P, Meyer D, Simon-neau G. Treatment of severe thromboembolism with intravenous hirudin (HBW 023): an open pilot study. Thromb Haemost 70:386-388, 1993.

Pieters J, Lindhout T, Hemker HC. In situ-generated thrombin is the only enzyme that effectively activates factor VIII and factor V in thromboplastin-activated plasma. Blood 74:1021-1024, 1989.

Pötzsch B, Madlener K, Seelig C, Riess CF, Greinacher A, Müller-Berghaus G. Monitoring of r-hirudin anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass—assessment of the whole blood ecarin clotting time. Thromb Haemost 77:920-925, 1997a.

Pötzsch B, Hund S, Madlener K, Unkrig C, Muller-Berghaus G. Monitoring of recombinant hirudin: assessment of a plasma-based ecarin clotting time assay. Thromb Res 86:373-383,1997b.

Ranze O, Ranze P, Magnani HN, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in paediatric patients—a review of the literature and a new case treated with danapar-oid sodium. Eur J Pediatr 158(suppl 3):S130-S133, 1999.

Refludan Package Insert. Monville, NJ: Berlex Laboratories, 2002.

Riess FC, Löwer C, Seelig C, Bleese N, Kormann J, Müller-Berghaus G, Pötzsch B. Recombinant hirudin as a new anticoagulant during cardiac operations instead of heparin: successful for aortic valve replacement in man. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110:265-267, 1995.

Riess FC, Pötzsch B, Bader R, Bleese N, Greinacher A, Löwer C, Madlener K, MüllerBerghaus G. A case report on the use of recombinant hirudin as an anticoagulant for cardiopulmonary bypass in open heart surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 10: 386-388, 1996.

Rupprecht HJ, Terres W, özbek C, Luz M, Jessel A, Hafner G, vom Dahl J, Kromer EP, Prellwitz W, Meyer J. Recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) prevents troponin T release after coronary angioplasty in patients with unstable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol 26:1637-1642, 1995.

Schiele F, Vuillemenot A, Kramarz P, Kieffer Y, Soria J, Soria C, Camez A, Mirshahi MC, Bassand JP. A pilot study of subcutaneous recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 71:558-562,1994.

Schiele F, Lindgaerde F, Eriksson H, Bassand JP, Wallmark A, Hansson PO, Grollier G, Sjo M, Moia M, Camez A, Smyth V, Walker M for the International Multicenter Hirudin Study Group. Subcutaneous recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) versus intravenous sodium heparin in treatment of established acute deep vein thrombosis of the legs: a multicentre prospective dose-ranging randomized trial. Thromb Haemost 77:834-838, 1997.

Schiffmann H, Unterhalt M, Harms K, Figulla HR, Völpel H, Greinacher A. Erfolgreiche Behandlung einer Heparin-induzierten Thrombozytopenie Typ II im Kindesalter mit rekombinantem Hirudin. Monatsschr Kinderheildk 145:606-612, 1997.

Shepherd MF. Dosage of lepirudin in renal failure. Am J Health Syst Pharm 59: 77-78, 2002.

Smith KJ, Rosario-Collazo J, Skelton H. Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to hirudin. Arch Pathol Lab Med 125:1585-1587, 2001.

Smythe MA, Stephens JL, Koerber JM, Mattson JC. A comparison of lepirudin and argatroban outcomes. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 11:371-374, 2005.

Song X, Huhle G, Wang L, Hoffmann U, Harenberg J. Generation of anti-hirudin antibodies in heparin-induced thrombocytopenic patients treated with r-hirudin. Circulation 100:1528-1532,1999.

Stephens JL, Koerber JM, Mattson JC, Smythe MA. Effect of lepirudin on the international normalized ratio. Ann Pharmacother 39:28-31, 2005.

Stone S, Hofsteenge J. The kinetics of the inhibition of thrombin by hirudin. Biochemistry 25:4622-4628, 1986.

Sukumaran DK, Clare GM, Presus A, Zarbock J, Gronenborn AM. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of hirudin: resonance assignment and secondary structure. Biochemistry 26:333-338,1987.

Tardy B, Lecompte T, Boelhen F, Tardy-Poncet B, Elalamy I, Morange P, Gruel Y, Wolf M, Francois D, Racadot E, Camarasa P, Blouch MT, Nguyen F, Doubine S, Dutrillaux F, Alhenc-Gelas M, Martin-Toutain I, Bauters A, Ffrench P, de Maistre E, Grunebaum L, Mouton C, Huisse MG, Gouault-Heilmann M, Lucke V, and the GEHT-HIT Study Group. Predictive factors for thrombosis and major bleeding in an observational study in 181 patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia treated with lepirudin. Blood 108:1492-1496, 2006.

Vanholder RC, Camez AA, Veys N, Soria J, Mirshahi M, Soria C, Ringoir S. Recombinant hirudin: a specific thrombin inhibiting anticoagulant for hemodialysis. Kidney Int 45:1754-1759,1994.

Vanholder R, Camez A, Veys N, Van Loo A, Dhondt AM, Ringoir S. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant hirudin in hemodialyzed end-stage renal failure patients. Thromb Haemost 77:650-655, 1997.

Warkentin TE. Should vitamin K be administered when HIT is diagnosed after administration of coumarin? J Thromb Haemost 4:894-896, 2006.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, Craven S, Dewar L, Sheppard JI, Ofosu FA. Differences in the clinically effective molar concentrations of four direct thrombin inhibitors explain their variable prothrombin time prolongation. Thromb Haemost 94:958-964, 2005.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 76:2121-2131, 2003.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recognition, treatment, and prevention: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 126 (3 Suppl):311S-337S, 2004.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. A 14-year study of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Med 101:502-507,1996.

Weitz JI, Hudoba M, Massel D, Maraganore J, Hirsh J. Clot-bound thrombin is protected from inhibition by heparin-antithrombin III but is susceptible to inactiva-tion by antithrombin Ill-independent inhibitors. J Clin Invest 86:385-391, 1990.

Weitz JI, Leslie B, Hudoba M. Thrombin binds to soluble fibrin degradation products where it is prothromboseted from inhibition by heparin-antithrombin but susceptible to inactivation by antithrombin-independent inhibitors. Circulation 97:544-552, 1998.

Wittkowsky AK, Kondo LM. Lepirudin dosing in dialysis-dependent renal failure. Pharmacotherapy 20:1123-1128, 2000.

Zollner TM, Gall H, Völpel H, Kaufmann R. Type IV allergy to natural hidurin confirmed by in vitro stimulation with recombinant hirudin. Contact Derm 35:59-60, 1996.

Allergy Relief

Allergy Relief

Have you ever wondered how to fight allergies? Here are some useful information on allergies and how to relief its effects. This is the most comprehensive report on allergy relief you will ever read.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment