Ahmad S, Jeske WP, Walenga JM, Hoppensteadt DA, Wood JJ, Herbert JM, Messmore HL, Fareed J. Synthetic penta saccharides do not cause platelet activation by antiheparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies. Clin Appl Thromb Haemost 5:259-266, 1999.

Alban S. Synthese und physiologische Testung neuartiger Heparinoide. Ph.D dissertation, University of Regensburg, Germany, 1993.

Alban S. Carbohydrates with anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. In: Witczak ZJ, Nieforth KA, eds. Carbohydrates in Drug Design. New York: Marcel Dekker, 209-276, 1997.

Alban S, Franz G. Anticoagulant activity of curdlan sulfates in dependence on their molecular weight. Pure Appl Chem 66:2403-2406, 1994a.

Alban S, Franz G. Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of anticoagulant active curdlan sulfates. Semin Thromb Hemost 20:152-158, 1994b.

Alban S, Jeske W, Welzel D, Franz G, Fareed J. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic actions of a semisynthetic ß-1, 3-glucan sulfate. Thromb Res 78:201-210,1995.

Amiral J. Le facteur 4 plaquettaire, cible des anticorps anti-heparine: application au diagnostic biologique de la thronibopenie induite par l»eparine (TIH). Ann Med Intern 148:142-149, 1997.

Amiral J, Bridey F, Dreyfus M, Vissac AM, Fressinaud E, Wolf M, Meyer D. Platelet factor 4 complexed to heparin is the target for antibodies generated in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [letter]. Thromb Haemost 68:95-96, 1992.

Amiral J, Bridey F, Wolf M, Boyer-Neumann C, Fressinaud E, Vissac AM, Pey naud-Debayle E, Dreyfus M, Meyer D. Antibodies to macromolecular platelet factor 4-heparin complexes in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a study of 44 cases. Thromb Haemost 73:21-28, 1995.

Amiral J, Peynaud-Debayle E, Wolf M, Bridey F, Vissac AM, Meyer D. Generation of antibodies to heparin-PF4 complexes without thrombocytopenia in patients treated with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin. Am J Hematol 52:90-95, 1996a.

Amiral J, Wolf M, Fischer A, Boyer-Neumann C, Vissac A, Meyer D. Pathogenicity of IgA and/or IgM antibodies to heparin-PF4 complexes in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 92:954-959, 1996b.

Amiral J, Lormeau JC, Marfaing-Koka A, Vissac AM, Wolf M, Boyer-Neumann C, Tardy B, Herbert JM, Meyer D. Absence of cross-reactivity of SR90107A/ ORG31540 pentasaccharide with antibodies to heparin-PF4 complexes developed in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 8:114-117,1997.

Amiral J, Pouplard C, Vissac AM, Walenga JM, Jeske W, Gruel Y. Affinity purification of heparin-dependent antibodies to platelet factor 4 developed in heparin-induced throm-bocytopenia: biological characteristics and effects on platelet activation. Br J Haematol 109:336-341, 2000.

Arepally G, McKenzie SE, Jiang XM, Poncz M, Cines DB. FcyRIIA H/R131 polymorphism, subclass-specific IgG anti-heparin/platelet factor 4 antibodies and clinical course in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Blood 89:370-375,1997.

Bauer KA, Hawkins DW, Peters PC, Petitou M, Herbert JM, Van Boeckel CA, Meuleman DG. Fondaparinux, a synthetic pentasaccharide: the first in a new class of antithrombotic agents-the selective factor Xa inhibitors. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 20: 37-52, 2002.

Beguin S, Mardiguian J, Lindhout T, Hemker HC. The mode of action of low molecular weight heparin preparation (PK10169) and two of its major components on thrombin generation in plasma. Thromb Haemost 61:30-34, 1989.

Bendetowicz AV, Kai H, Knebel R, Caplain H, Hemker HC, Lindhout T, Beguin S. The effect of subcutaneous injection of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparin on thrombin generation in platelet rich plasma a study in human volunteers. Thromb Haemost 72:705-712, 1994.

Bjork I, Olson ST, Shore JD. Molecular mechanisms of the accelerating effect of heparin on the reaction between antithrombin and clotting proteinases. In: Lane DA, Lindahl U, eds. Heparin, Chemical and Biological Properties, Clinical Applications. London: Edward Arnold, 229-255, 1989.

Bock PE, Luscombe M, Marshall SE, Pepper DS, Holbrook JJ. The multiple complexes formed by the interaction of platelet factor 4 with heparin. Biochem J 191: 769-776, 1980.

Campbell A, Nesheim ME, Doctor VM. Mechanism of potentiation of antithrombin III [AT-III] inhibition by sulfated xylans. Thromb Res 47:341-352, 1987.

Capitanio AM, Niewiarowski S, Rucinski B, Tuszynski GP, Cierniewski CS, Hershock D, Kornecki E. Interaction of platelet factor 4 with human platelets. Biochim Biophys Acta 839:161-173, 1985.

Carlsson LE, Santoso S, Baurichter G, Kroll H, Papenberg S, Eichler P, Westerdaal NAC, Kiefel V, van de Winkel JGJ, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: new insights into the impact of the Fc-yRIIa-R-HlSl polymorphism. Blood 92: 1526-1531,1998.

Casu B. Structure and biological activity of heparin. Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 43:51-134,1985.

Casu B. Heparin structure. Haemostasis 20(suppl 1):62-73,1990.

Cella G, Scattolo N, Luzzatto G, Stevanato F, Vio C, Girolami ASO. Effects on platelets and on the clotting system of four glycosaminoglycans extracted from hog mucosa and one extracted from aortic intima of the calf. J Med 17:331-346, 1986.

Choay J. Structure and activity of heparin and its fragments: an overview. Semin Thromb Hemost 15:359-364, 1989.

Chong BH, Fawaz I, Chestermann CN, Berndt MC. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: mechanism of interaction of the heparin-dependent antibody with platelets. Br J Haematol 73:235-240, 1989a.

Chong BH, Ismail F, Cade J, Gallus AS, Gordon S, Chesterman CN. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: studies with a new molecular weight heparinoid, Org 10172. Blood 73:1592-1596, 1989b.

Chong BH, Pilgrim RL, Cooley MA, Chesterman CN. Increased expression of platelet IgG Fc receptors in immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 81:988-993,1993.

Cines DB, Tomaski A, Tannenbaum S. Immune endothelial-cell injury in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 316:581-589, 1987.

Dawes J, Pumphrey CW, McLaren KM, Prowse CV, Pepper DS. The in vivo release of human platelet factor 4 by heparin. Thromb Res 27:65-76,1982.

Denton J, Lane DA, Thunberg L, Slater AM, Lindahl U. Binding of platelet factor 4 to heparin oligosaccharides. Biochem J 209:455-460, 1983.

Fareed J, Walenga JM, Hoppensteadt D, Haun X, Racanelli A. Comparative study on the in vitro and in vivo activities of seven low-molecular-weight heparins. Haemos-tasis 18(suppl 3):3-15, 1988.

Fondu P. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: an update. Acta Clin Belg 50: 343-357, 1995.

Franz G, Alban S. Structure-activity relationship of antithrombotic polysaccharide derivatives. Int J Biol Macromol 17:311-314, 1995.

Gironell A, Altes A, Arboix A, Fontcuberta J, Munoz Z, Marti-Vilalta JL. Pentosan polysulfate-induced thrombocytopenia: a case diagnosed with an ELISA test used for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Hematol 73:51-62, 1996.

Greinacher A. Antigen generation in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the non-immunologic type and the immunologic type are closely linked in their pathogen-esis. Semin Thromb Hemost 21:106-116,1995.

Greinacher A, Michels I, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the antibody is not heparin specific. Thromb Haemost 67:545-549, 1992.

Greinacher A, Michels I, Liebenhoff U, Presek P, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: immune complexes are attached to the platelet membrane by the negative charge of highly sulphated oligosaccharides. Br J Haematol 84:711-716,1993.

Greinacher A, Potzsch B, Amiral J, Dummel V, Eichner A, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: isolation of the antibody and characterization of a multimolecular PF4-heparin complex as the major antigen. Thromb Haemost 71:247-251, 1994a.

Greinacher A, Amiral J, Dummel V, Vissac AM, Kiefel V, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Laboratory diagnosis of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia, comparison of platelet aggregation test, heparin-induced platelet activation (HIPA) test, and PF4/ heparin ELISA. Transfusion 34:381-385, 1994b.

Greinacher A, Feigl M, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Cross reactivity studies between sera of patients with heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and a new low molecular weight heparin, reviparin. Thromb Haemost 72:644-645,1994c.

Greinacher A, Alban S, Dummel V, Franz G, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Characterization of the structural requirements for a carbohydrate based anticoagulant with a reduced risk of inducing the immunological type of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 74:886-892, 1995.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Luz M. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thromboembolic complications: meta-analysis of two prospective trials to assess the value of parenteral treatment with lepirudin and its therapeutic aPTT range. Blood 96:846-851, 2000.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lietz T, Warkentin TE. Replacement of unfractionated heparin by low-molecular-weight heparin for postorthopedic surgery antithrombotic prophylaxis lowers the overall risk of symptomatic thrombosis because of a lower frequency of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 106:2921-2922, 2005.

Greinacher A, Gopinadhan M, Gunther JU, Omer-Adam MA, Strobel U, Warkentin TE, Papastavrou G, Weitschies W, Helm CA. Close approximation of two platelet factor 4 tetramers by charge neutralization forms the antigens recognized by HIT antibodies. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2386-2389, 2006.

Handin RI, Cohen HJ. Purification and binding properties of human platelet factor four. J Biol Chem 251:4273-4282,1976.

Herbert JM, Herault JP, Bernat A, van Amsterdam RG, Vogel GM, Lormeau JC, Petitou M, Meuleman DG. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of SANORG 32701. Comparison with the "synthetic pentasaccharide" (SR 90107/0RG 31540) and standard heparin. Circ Res 79:590-600, 1996.

Herbert JM, Herault JP, Bernat A, van Amsterdam RG, Lormeau JC, Petitou M, van Boeckel C, Hoffman P, Meuleman DG. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of SANORG 34006, a potent and long-acting synthetic pentasaccharide. Blood 91:4197-4205, 1998.

Herbert JM, Herault JP, Bernat A, Savi P, Schaeffer P, Driguez PA, Duchaussoy P, Petitou M. SR123781A, a synthetic heparin mimetic. Thromb Haemost 85:852-860, 2001.

Hirsh J, Raschke R. Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 126:188S-203S, 2004.

Horne MK III. The effect of secreted heparin-binding proteins on heparin binding to platelets. Thromb Res 70:91-98,1993.

Horne MK III, Alkins BR. Platelet binding of IgG from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Lab Clin Med 127:435-442,1996.

Horne MK III, Hutchison KJ. Simultaneous binding of heparin and platelet factor-4 to platelets: further insights into the mechanism of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol 58:24-30, 1998.

Horsewood P, Warkentin TE, Hayward CP, Kelton JG. The epitope specificity of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 95:161-167, 1996.

Juhl D, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Strobel U, Wessel A, Greinacher A. Incidence and clinical significance of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA class in 755 consecutive patient samples referred for diagnostic testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol 76:420-426, 2006.

Kaplan KL, Niewiarowski S. Nomenclature of secreted platelet proteins-report of the Working Party on Secreted Platelet Proteins of the Subcommittee on Platelets. Thromb Haemost 53:282-284, 1985.

Kappers-Klunne MC, Boon DM, Hop WC, Michiels JJ, Stibbe J, van der Zwaan C, Koudstaal PJ, van Vliet HH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: a prospective analysis of the incidence in patients with heart and cerebrovascular diseases. Br J Haematol 96:442-446, 1997.

Kelton JG, Sheridan D, Santos A, Smith J, Steeves K, Smith C, Brown C, Murphy WG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: laboratory studies. Blood 72:925-930, 1988.

Kelton JG, Smith JW, Warkentin TE, Hayward CP, Denomme GA, Horsewood P. Immunoglobulin G from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia binds to a complex of heparin and platelet factor 4. Blood 83:3232-3239,1994.

Kindness G, Long WF, Williamson FB. Anticoagulant effects of sulphated polysacchar-ides in normal and antithrombin III-deficient plasmas. Br J Pharmacol 69:675-677, 1980.

Klener P, Kubisz PSO. Platelet heparin-neutralizing activity (platelet factor 4). Acta Univ Carol Med (Praha) 24:79-86, 1978.

Lane DA, Denton J, Flynn AM, Thunberg L, Lindahl U. Anticoagulant activities of heparin oligosaccharides and their neutralization by platelet factor 4. Biochem J 218:725-732,1984.

Li ZQ, Liu W, Park KS, Sachais BS, Arepally GM, Cines DB, Poncz M. Defining a second epitope for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis antibodies using KKO, a murine HIT-like monoclonal antibody. Blood 99:1230-1236, 2002.

Linhardt RJ, Toida T. Heparin oligosaccharides: new analogues development and applications. In: Witczak ZJ, Nieforth KA, eds. Carbohydrates in Drug Design. New York: Marcel Dekker, 277-341, 1997.

Linhardt RJ, Rice KM, Kim YS, Lohse DL, Wang HM, Loganathan D. Mapping and quantification of the major oligosaccharide components of heparin. Biochem J 254:781-787, 1988.

Linhardt RJ, Ampofo SA, Fareed J, Hoppensteadt D, Mulliken JB, Folkman J. Isolation and characterization of human heparin. Biochemistry 31:12441-12445, 1992.

Loscalzo J, Melnick B, Handin RI. The interaction of platelet factor four and glycosami-noglycans. Arch Biochem Biophys 240:446-455, 1985.

Luscher EF, Kaser-Glanzman R. Platelet heparin-neutralizing factor (platelet factor 4). Thromb Diath Haemorrh 33:66-72, 1975.

Maccarana M, Lindahl U. Mode of interaction between platelet factor 4 and heparin. Glycobiology 3:271-277, 1993.

Martel N, Lee J, Wells PS. Risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with unfractio-nated and low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis: a meta-analysis. Blood 106:2710-2715, 2005.

Mayo KH, Roongta V, Ilyina E, Milius R, Barker S, Quinlan C, La Rosa G, Daly TJ. NMR solution structure of the 32-kDa platelet factor 4 ELR-motif N-terminal chimera: a symmetric tetramer. Biochemistry 34:11399-11409, 1995.

Meuleman DG. Orgaran (Org 10172): its pharmacological profile in experimental models. Haemostasis 22:58-65,1992.

Mikhailov D, Young HC, Linhardt RJ, Mayo KH. Heparin dodecasaccharide binding to platelet factor-4 and growth-related protein- : induction of a partially folded state and implications for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Biol Chem 274: 25317-25329, 1999.

Moore S, Pepper DS, Cash JD. Platelet antiheparin activity. The isolation and characterization of platelet factor 4 released from thrombin-aggregated washed human platelets and its dissociation into subunits and the isolation of membrane-bound antiheparin activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 379:370-384, 1975.

Newman PM, Chong BH. Further characterization of antibody and antigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 107:303-309, 1999.

Newman PM, Chong BH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: new evidence for the dynamic binding of purified anti-PF4-heparin antibodies to platelets and the resultant platelet activation. Blood 96:182-187, 2000.

Niewiarowski S. Report of the Working Party on Platelets. Platelet factor 4 (PF4), platelet protein with heparin neutralizing activity. Thromb Haemost 36:273-276, 1976.

Novotny WF, Maffi T, Mehta RL, Milner PG. Identification of novel heparin releasable proteins, as well as the cytokines midkine and pleiotrophin, in human postheparin plasma. Arterioscler Thromb 13:1798-1805, 1993.

O'Brien JR, Etherington MD, Pashley MA. The heparin-mobilisable pool of platelet factor 4: a comparison of intravenous and subcutaneous heparin and Kabi heparin fragment 2165. Thromb Haemost 54:735-738, 1985.

Padilla A, Gray E, Pepper DS, Barrowcliffe TW. Inhibition of thrombin generation by heparin and low molecular weight (LMW) heparins in the absence and presence of platelet factor 4 (PF4). Br J Haematol 82:406-413,1992.

Petitou M, Duchaussoy P, Jaurand G, Gourvenec F, Lederman I, Strassel JM, Barzu T, Crepon B, Herault JP, Lormeau JC, Bernat A, Herbert JM. Synthesis and pharmacological properties of a close analogue of an antithrombotic pentasaccharide (SR 90107A/ORG 31540). J Med Chem 40:1600-1607, 1997.

Petitou M, Herault JP, Bernat A, Driguez PA, Duchaussoy P, Lormeau JC, Herbert JM. Synthesis of thrombin-inhibiting heparin mimetics without side effects. Nature 398:417-422, 1999.

Prechel MM, McDonald MK, Jeske WP, Messmore HL, Walenga JM. Activation of platelets by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies in the serotonin release assay is not dependent on the presence of heparin. J Thromb Haemost 3:2168-2175, 2005.

Rauova L, Poncz M, McKenzie SE, Reilly MP, Arepally G, Weisel JW, Nagaswami C, Cines DB, Sachais BS. Ultra large complexes of PF4 and heparin are central to the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 105:131-138, 2005.

Rauova L, Zhai L, Kowalska MA, Arepally GM, Cines DB, Poncz M. Role of platelet surface PF4 antigenic complexes in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia pathogenesis: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Blood 107:2346-2353, 2006.

Rosenthal MA, Rischin D, McArthur G, Ribbons K, Chong B, Fareed J, Toner G, Green MD, Basser RL. Treatment with the novel anti-angiogenic agent PI-88 is associated with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. Ann Oncol 13:770-776, 2002.

St. Charles R, Walz DA, Edwards BF. The three-dimensional structure of bovine platelet factor 4 at 3.0-A resolution. J Biol Chem 264:2092-2099,1989.

Salem HH, van der Weyden MB. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Variable platelet-rich plasma reactivity to heparin-dependent platelet aggregating factor. Pathology 15:297-299, 1983.

Savi P, Chong BH, Greinacher A, Gruel Y, Kelton JG, Warkentin TE, Eichler P, Meuleman D, Petitou M, Herault JP, Cariou R, Herbert JM. Effect of fondaparinux on platelet activation in the presence of heparin-dependent antibodies: a blinded comparative multicenter study with unfractionated heparin. Blood 105:139-144, 2005.

Sear CH, Poller L. Antiheparin activity of human serum and platelet factor 4. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 30:93-105, 1973.

Stuckey JA, St. Charles R, Edwards BF. A model of the platelet factor 4 complex with heparin. Proteins 14:277-287, 1992.

Suh JS, Malik MI, Aster RH, Visentin GP. Characterization of the humoral immune response in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol 54:196-201,1997.

Suh JS, Aster RH, Visentin GP. Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis recognize different epitopes on heparin: platelet factor 4. Blood 91:916-922, 1998.

Suzuki S, Koide M, Sakamoto S, Yamamoto S, Matsuo M, Fujii E, Matsuo T. Early onset of immunological heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in acute myocardial infarction. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 8:13-15,1997.

Tardy PB, Tardy B, Grelac F, Reynaud J, Mismetti P, Bertrand JC, Guyotat D. Pentosan polysulfate-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Am J Hematol 88:803-808, 1994.

Turpie AGG. New therapeutic opportunities for heparins: what does low molecular weight heparin offer? J Thromb Thrombolysis 3:145-149,1996.

Visentin GP. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: molecular pathogenesis. Thromb Haemost 82:448-456, 1999.

Visentin GP, Ford SE, Scott JP, Aster RH. Antibodies from patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis are specific for platelet factor 4 complexed with heparin or bound to endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 93:81-88,1994.

Visentin GP, Malik M, Cyganiak KA, Aster RH. Patients treated with unfractionated heparin during open heart surgery are at high risk to form antibodies reactive with heparin: platelet factor 4 complexes. J Lab Clin Med 128:376-383, 1996.

Visentin GP, Moghaddam M, Beery SE, McFarland JG, Aster RH. Heparin is not required for detection of antibodies associated with heparin induced thrombocyto-penia/thrombosis. J Lab Clin Med 138:22-31, 2001.

Warkentin TE, Bernstein RA. Delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and cerebral thrombosis after a single administration of unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med 348:1067-1069, 2003.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 135:502-506, 2001.

Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsh J, Horsewood P, Roberts RS, Gent M, Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low molecular weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med 332:1330-1335, 1995.

Warkentin TE, Elavathil LJ, Hayward CPM, Johnston MA, Russett JI, Kelton JG. The pathogenesis of venous limb gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia. Ann Intern Med 127:804-812,1997.

Warkentin TE, Cook RJ, Marder VJ, Sheppard JA, Moore JC, Eriksson BI, Greinacher A, Kelton JG. Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in orthopedic surgery patients receiving antithrombotic prophylaxis with fondaparinux or enoxaparin. Blood 106:3791-3796, 2005a.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JA, Moore JC, Moore KM, Sigouin CS, Kelton JG. Laboratory testing for the antibodies that cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: how much class do we need? J Lab Clin Med 146:341-346, 2005b.

Warkentin TE, Jay RM, Makris M, Kelton JG. Platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4/polyanion antibodies without preceding heparin therapy: a transient autoimmune disorder resembling heparin-induced thrombocytopenia ("spontaneous HIT") [abstr]. Blood 108:311a, 2006a.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI, Sigouin CS, Kohlmann T, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Gender imbalance and risk factor interactions in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 108:2937-2941, 2006b.

Williams RT, Damaraju LV, Mascelli MA, Barnathan ES, Califf RM, Simoons ML, Deliargyris EN, Sane DC. Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies: an independent predictor of 30-day myocardial infraction after acute coronary ischemic syndromes. Circulation 107:2307-2312, 2003.

Weimann G, Lubenow N, Selleng K, Eichler P, Albrecht D, Greinacher A. Glucosamine sulfate does not cross react with the antibodies of patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol 66:195-199, 2001.

Wilde MI, Markham A. Danaparoid. A review of its pharmacology and clinical use in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Drugs 54:903-924, 1997.

Young E, Prins MH, Levine MN, Hirsh J. Heparin binding to plasma proteins, an important mechanism for heparin resistance. Thromb Haemost 67:639-643, 1992.

Zhang X, Chen L, Bancroft DP, Lai CK, Maione TE. Crystal structure of recombinant human platelet factor 4. Biochemistry 33:8361-8366, 1994.

0 0

Post a comment